Nacionales

¿Atrapados en la moda de la innovación?

Rafael Palacios10/10/2017. América Latina aún no termina de dar señales suficientes sobre su verdadera capacidad para innovar. La innovación como ...

Regreso al bipartidismo de mayor consenso

Luis Fuenmayor Toro  Coordinador Nacional de “De Frente con Venezuela”  Las conversaciones en Dominicana y las habidas desde hace ...

Votos sordomudos, llanto y única voz

Pedro Conde09/10/2017. Millones de votos sordomudos emitidos por adherentes de la pareja partidista PSUV-MUD, que con sus leves diferencias internas ...

Crítica a las medidas económicas de los “guerreros económicos”: Salas, Boza, Valdés, etc.

 Centro de Investigación y Formación Obrera (CIFO)  03/10/2017. En un reciente documento algunos analistas que apoyan fervientemente la política económica del ...

Prouestas para detener la inflación inducida en Venezuela

Pascualina Curcio03/10/2017. Detener la inflación inducida en Venezuela es lo más urgente en estos momentos, y eso pasa, con absoluta ...

Ex comandante de la OTAN advierte posible guerra civil en Venezuela

Por EL NACIONAL WEB30 de Septiembre de 2017. El almirante James Stavridis, ex comandante supremo de las Fuerzas Aliadas de la ...

Venezuela y geopolítica, por Leopoldo Puchi

Leopoldo Puchi28/09/2017. Si hacía falta una evidencia de que Venezuela se encontraba en el centro de un torbellino mundial de ...

Jorge Rodríguez: Nos mantenemos en el diálogo cumpliendo nuestra palabra

Agencias / Redacción WEB27/09/2017. El representante del gobierno nacional para el diálogo con la oposición venezolana, Jorge Rodríguez, agradeció este ...

Respuesta a Rafael Ramírez

Einstein Millán Arcia 22/09/2017. El ex presidente de PDVSA y ex ministro de Petróleo y Minería Rafael Ramírez desde Nueva York, ...

Negociaciones en Santo Domingo, por Leopoldo Puchi

Leopoldo Puchi21/09/2017. Se ha dado inicio a una nueva ronda de negociaciones entre Gobierno y oposición, realizada por iniciativa de ...

Lo que no se ve, artículo del embajador Rafael Ramírez

Rafael Ramírez / Embajador17/09/2017. Solía decir un viejo amigo que en política lo más peligroso es lo que no se ...

Cumaná en emergencia sanitaria: el motivo es indignante

Servando Marín Lista  17/09/17 Las playas de Cumaná no estan aptas para los bañistas por los altos niveles de bacterias enterococos ...

Leyes

Looking backward: From Euler to Riemann

We survey the main ideas in the early history of the subjects on which Riemann worked and that led to some of his most important discoveries. The subjects discussed include the theory of functions of a complex variable, elliptic and Abelian integrals, the hypergeometric series, the zeta function, topology, differential geometry, integration, and the notion of space. We shall see that among Riemann’s predecessors in all these fields, one name occupies a prominent place, this is Leonhard Euler.

Política

The Chinese Dimension of the USA-China-Russia Triangle Today

In order not to give you merely dry, theoretical considerations, I would like to begin my presentation by describing the dramatic situation taking shape in the world today, which is being trumpeted in mass media like CNN, ABC, Euronews, and so forth. Almost everybody is focussed on the Korean situation. Just now, before leaving the hotel this morning, I was watching the latest news from CNN, which reported on the special statement made by U.S. Secretary of State Kerry in Seoul, South Korea. He said that the United States, like the entire world, is extremely concerned about the nuclear threat from North Korea, and that the USA is extending its hand for dialogue with North Korea, and cancelling a number of maneuvers. Then Kerry got to the core of his speech, saying that he was now going to fly to Beijing, and that it was the Chinese leadership, the Chinese comrades, who should play the decisive role in settling the current crisis, which includes the threat of a military conflict with the use of nuclear weapons.

Ciencia y tecnología

Reconsidering Experiments

Experiments may not reveal their full import at the time that they are performed. The scientists who perform them usually are testing a specific hypothesis and quite often have specific expectations limiting the possible inferences that can be drawn from the experiment. Nonetheless, as Hacking has said, experiments have lives of their own. Those lives do not end with the initial report of the results and consequences of the experiment. Going back and rethinking the consequences of the experiment in a new context, theoretical or empirical, has great merit as a strategy for investigation and for scientific problem analysis. I apply this analysis to the interplay between Fizeau’s classic optical experiments and the building of special relativity. Einstein’s understanding of the problems facing classical electrodynamics and optics, in part, was informed by Fizeau’s 1851 experiments. However, between 1851 and 1905, Fizeau’s experiments were duplicated and reinterpreted by a succession of scientists, including Hertz, Lorentz, and Michelson

Crítica

Paul J. Cohen y la técnica del forcing

¿En qué consiste el método para construir modelos de la Teoría de conjuntos llamado “FORCING” que creó Cohen (1963-64) ? y ¿Cuál es su importancia en las Matemáticas contemporáneas?. “No es fácil explicar los detalles del trabajo de Cohen en pocas palabras y a no especialistas en lógica”.

Educacion

El Método de Forcing: Algunas aplicaciones y una aproximación a sus fundamentos metamatemáticos

Es conocido que el método de forcing es una de las técnicas de construcción de modelos más importantes de la Teoría de conjuntos en la actualidad, siendo el mismo muy útil para investigar problemas de matemática y de fundamentos de la matemática. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es estudiar tal método, describir algunas de sus aplicaciones y ofrecer una aproximación a sus fundamentos metamatemáticos. Se aspira que este texto sirva de apoyo para aprender dicho método.

Internacionales

Forget Diplomacy With North Korea if Trump Decertifies the Iran Deal

U.S. President Donald Trump has long been an opponent of the nuclear deal with Iran. At the recent UN General Assembly, he called the agreement an embarrassment. After the administration certified that Iran was in compliance with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in July, Trump instructed a trusted group of advisors to build a case to not certify Iran’s compliance when the next deadline came due on October 15. With the new deadline approaching, Trump has three options. Continue to certify that the Iran is in compliance with its obligations under JCPOA, notify Congress that Iran is no longer in compliance, or notify Congress that remaining in the JCPOA is no longer in the national interest of the United States.

Opinion

El Teorema de indecidibilidad de Church (1936): Formulación y presentación de las ideas principales de su prueba

El Teorema de indecidibilidad de Church es uno de los resultados meta-teóricos de mediados de la tercera década del siglo pasado, que junto a otros teoremas limitativos como los de Gödel y Tarski, han generado todo un sinfín de reflexiones y análisis tanto en el marco de las ciencias formales, esto es, la matemática, la lógica y la computación teórica, como fuera de ellas, en especial la filosofía de la matemática, la filosofía de la lógica y la filosofía de la mente. Nos proponemos, como propósito general del presente artículo, formular el Teorema de indecidibilidad de Church y presentar las ideas principales de su demostración. Para llevar a cabo el primer objetivo necesitamos introducir y explicar las nociones de función recursiva y la numeración de Gödel, que permitirán enunciar de manera formal y rigurosa el Teorema de Church.

Ambiente

Demostración y silogismo en los Analíticos segundos. Reconstrucción y discusión

En este artículo se discute la relación entre silogismo y demostración con respecto al concepto aristotélico del conocimiento científico formulado en los Analíticos segundos. La argumentación sigue tres líneas principales: (i) se ofrecen razones para rechazar la relegación de la sistematización silogística a la instancia postrera de justificación y exposición didáctica del conocimiento previamente adquirido. Como respuesta alternativa, (ii) se muestra que una explicación aristotélica necesita la silogística en virtud del papel que desempeña la causa como término medio silogístico. En consecuencia, debería estar en condiciones de (iii) sostener que no resulta factible establecer firmemente los principios propios como premisas explicativas sin construir silogismos.

Economía

Fractal and multifractal analysis of complex networks: Estonian network of payments

Complex networks have gained much attention from different areas of knowledge in recent years. Particularly, the structures and dynamics of such systems have attracted considerable interest. Complex networks may have characteristics of multifractality. In this study, we analyze fractal and multifractal properties of a novel network: the large scale economic network of payments of Estonia, where companies are represented by nodes and the payments done between companies are represented by links. We present a fractal scaling analysis and examine the multifractal behavior of this network by using a sandbox algorithm. Our results indicate the existence of multifractality in this network and consequently, the existence of multifractality in the Estonian economy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes multifractality of a complex network of payments.

Filosofía

Philosophy of Probability Foundations, Epistemology, and Computation

The topics discussed in this dissertation are all related to the philosophy of probability: we discuss the foundations of probability theory—a special topic in the philosophy of mathematics—and the epistemology of probabilistic information. Whereas epistemology traditionally deals with beliefs of only a single agent, we will also apply probability theory to describe the beliefs of groups of interacting agents (social epistemology). Section 1.1 gives the rationale for this dissertation and makes its structure explicit. In section 1.2, we will define the branches of philosophy to which this dissertation belongs: formal philosophy and computational philosophy. In section 1.3, we give an overview of the foundations of probability and randomness. This section also describes the author’s position on the interpretation of probability, which is an epistemic one. Section 1.4 gives an overview of the mathematics and philosophy of the concept of infinity.

sociologia

Joseph Schumpeter and Gabriel Tarde on Technological Change and Social Evolution

In this paper, we show that the certain elaborations of the French sociologist Gariel Tarde may be traced throughout Schumpeter’s works. More specifically, we show that Joseph Schumpeter’s views were influenced by the French social philosopher and theoretician Gabriel Tarde who delivered a theory of Social Evolution based on Technological Change as its driving force, closely related to the profiteering function of the economy. Also, we demonstrate that Tarde’s approach has striking similarities with the Schumpeterian vision of Economic Development, Change and Social Evolution. But there are similarities in their respective methodological approaches as well. For instance, the most striking similarity is that despite the importance he gave to the social stratum, Tarde, just like Schumpeter’s early approach, never fully admitted the determination of the individual’s will by the social forces. In other words, they both attempted to explain social evolution by means of individual initiative. At this point it should be mentioned that Tarde’s theory has been delivered and published about a decade before the publication of the first edition of Schumpeter’s influential Theory of Economic Development.