Nacionales

El lado oscuro del golpe de Estado, o sus primeras 48 horas

Toby Valderrama Antonio Aponte21/09/2018. El presidente Maduro acusa un golpe de Estado, señala a un general de planificador, así pone ...

Sebastiana Barráez: La silenciosa invasión de la frontera

20/09/2018. La presencia de casi un centenar de funcionarios de la Fuerza de Acciones Especiales (FAES), enviados a la frontera ...

Exhortan al Gobierno “parar” las invasiones porque “aumenta” la crisis humanitaria

Walter ObregonBarinas.- El diputado a la Asamblea Nacional, Andrés Eloy Camejo, condenó la práctica de ocupaciones ilegales que han ocurrido en ...

Rusia rechaza rotundamente las amenazas de intervención militar contra Venezuela

Moscú, septiembre 20 - El gobierno de Rusia condenó las amenazas de intervención militar que promovió el secretario General de ...

Las 12 propuestas que presentó el Frente Amplio para recuperar al país

El Nacional20/09/2018. El Frente Amplio Venezuela Libre presentó al país 12 propuestas que, de ser aceptadas y aprobadas, aspira a ...

Venezuela en el contexto mundial

Jose LombardiLa imposibilidad de llegar a acuerdos políticos internos ha desencadenado una serie de situaciones que colocan a Venezuela como ...

Acuerdo obligado

Luis Ugalde20/09/2018. Las cosas han llegado a tal extremo y la situación es tan dramática que la desesperación se ha ...

Sinofobia y capitalismo salvaje

Víctor A. BolívarGómez, en su férrea y arbitraria forma de ejercer el poder, implementó leyes y otros dispositivos jurídicos que ...

Ex asesor de Obama: Trump podría ordenar acciones militares en Venezuela

19/09/2018. Emanuel Rahm, ex asesor de Barack Obama, advirtió que Donald Trump, presidente de Estados Unidos, puede ordenar acciones militares ...

“Un verdadero ejército”: Gobierno de Maduro privilegia a la GNB para su protección y reforzar el control interno

18/09/2018. La organización Control Ciudadano, para la Seguridad, la Defensa y la Fuerza Armada Nacional, presentó un estudio que documenta ...

Apuntes de política petrolera venezolana I

Carlos Mendoza Potellá18/09/2018. Debo comenzar estos “Apuntes…” agradeciendo al Dr. Mazhar Al Shereidah por ofrecerme una ventana en este portal, Petroanalysis, para ventilar ...

Trump, OTAN, Francia, Alemania, Rusia y Venezuela

Pedro Conde Regardiz17/09/2018. Bob Woodward, el mismo periodista de Watergate, publicó un libro, Fear: Trump in the White House, que ...

Leyes

Randomness & Complexity, from Leibniz to Chaitin

During its history of more than 40 years, AIT knew a significant variation in terminology. In particular, the main measures of complexity studied in AIT were called Solomonoff-Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity, Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin complexity, algorithmic complexity, program-size complexity, etc. Solovay’s handwritten notes [22]3 , introduced and used the terms Chaitin complexity and Chaitin machine.4 The book [21] promoted the name Kolmogorov complexity for both AIT and its main complexity.5 The main contribution shared by AIT founding fathers in the mid 1960s was the new type of complexity—which is invariant up to an additive constant—and, with it, a new way to reason about computation.

Política

La metapolítica en la obra de Gustavo Bueno

Todo el pensamiento de Bueno descansa sobre dos pilares importantes: su rigurosa formación escolástica y su marxismo heterodoxo. De la fusión de ambas corrientes nace su sistema, el materialismo filosófico, que, aun situándose a la “izquierda” (Bueno se considera a si mismo y a sus discípulos como la séptima generación de la izquierda) recupera temas propios de la “derecha”: reivindicación de la Hispanidad y del Imperio Hispánico, defensa de la unidad de España, condena del aborto, &c. Desde nuestro punto de vista consideramos que la filosofía de Bueno, y especialmente su metapolítica, pueden ser un punto de apoyo importante para la construcción del Hispanismo como Cuarta Teoría Política.

Ciencia y tecnología

Weak Optimality, and the Meaning of Sharing

In this paper we investigate laziness and optimal evaluation strategies for functional programming languages. We consider the weak λ-calculus as a basis of functional programming languages, and we adapt to this setting the concepts of optimal reductions that were defined for the full λ-calculus. We prove that the usual implementation of call-by-need using sharing is optimal, that is, normalizing any λ-term with call-by-need requires exactly the same number of reduction steps as the shortest reduction sequence in the weak λ-calculus without sharing. Furthermore, we prove that optimal reduction sequences without sharing are not computable. Hence sharing is the only computable means to reach weak optimality.

Crítica

The Life of Modern Homo Habilis Mathematicus: Experimental Computation and Visual Theorems.

Long before current graphic, visualisation and geometric tools were available, John E. Littlewood (1885-1977) wrote in his delightful Miscellany: A heavy warning used to be given [by lecturers] that pictures are not rigorous; this has never had its bluff called and has permanently frightened its victims into playing for safety. Some pictures, of course, are not rigorous, but I should say most are (and I use them whenever possible myself). [34, p. 53] Over the past five to ten years, the role of visual computing in my own research has expanded dramatically. In part this was made possible by the increasing speed and storage capabilities—and the growing ease of programming—of modern multi-core computing environments. But, at least as much, it has been driven by my group’s paying more active attention to the possibilities for graphing, animating or simulating most mathematical research activities.

Educacion

Principle “synthesis” for the solution of tasks of class NP

Mathematical experts couldn’t find any algorithm of obtaining the exact answer for one mass NP-complete task during four decades after emergence of the concept “class NP”. It is logical to assume that perfectly developed traditional and/or developed experimentally approaches to creation of algorithms and will not provide considerable progress in this question. Therefore, despite of the fact what the final answer to “P ? NP” dilemma will be, it is essential now to look for other ideologies of algorithms functioning of the solution of similar tasks on discrete structures. “Metaedroalgorithm” can be one of such nonconventional, but very perspective approaches.

Internacionales

Donald Trump: invadir a Irak y Afganistán fue el peor error de la historia de EE UU

“El peor error cometido jamás en la historia de nuestro país: meterse en Oriente Medio por parte del presidente Bush”, aseguró Trump en una entrevista con el diario digital The Hill. “Puede que (el expresidente Barack) Obama (2009-2017) sacara de mala manera (a las tropas en Irak y parte de las desplegadas en Afganistán), pero meterse ahí es, para mí, el peor error cometido en la historia de nuestro país“, reiteró. “Nos gastamos 7 billones de dólares en Oriente Medio (…). Siete billones de dólares y millones de vidas, porque me gusta contar (las vidas perdidas en) ambos lados (de la contienda). Millones de vidas“, insistió.

Opinion

The Lambda Calculus: Practice and Principle

The Lambda Calculus has perplexed students of computer science for millennia, rendering many incapable of understanding even the most basic precepts of functional programming. This paper gently introduces the core concepts to the lay reader, assuming only a minimum of background knowledge in category theory, quantum chromodynamics, and paleomagnetism. In addition, this paper goes on to its main results, showing how the Lambda Calculus can be used to easily prove the termination of Leibniz’ Hailstone numbers for all n > 0, to show that matrix multiplication is possible in linear time, and to guarantee Scottish independence.

Ambiente

A Brief Introduction to the Lambda Calculus

When you first learned about functions, they were most likely introduced as abstractions of expressions. For example, consider the expression 2 + 3, which can be immediately evaluated by the rules of elementary arithmetic to give value 5. We can abstract, i.e., generalize the notion of “adding 3 to 2” to that of “adding 3 to something,” giving rise the function f : x 7→ x + 3. We can then apply this function to other arguments, e.g., f(4) = 4 + 3 = 7. This style of function definition is intentional—functions are defined by specifying an intended means of evaluation. Later, you may have been encouraged to think of functions extensionally, i.e., as sets of ordered pairs, e.g. f = {(x, y) : y = x + 3}. Such an approach conveys substantial metamathematical advantages, but it comes at a terrible cost—functions are no longer things that you can compute with. The lambda calculus [Chu41] returns to the notion of functions as abstractions of expressions. Abstraction is accomplished by the eponymous lambda (λ), by means of which we could define the function f as λx. x + 3. An abstraction may be applied to an argument,

Economía

Emil Lederer and the Schumpeter, Hilferding, Tugan-Baranowsky Nexus

This essay argues that Emil Lederer formulated his research agenda and his main theses in close theoretical contact with the conceptual framework of other schools of thought, as represented by major scholars such as Joseph Schumpeter, Rudolf Hilferding and Mikhail Ivanovich Tugan-Baranowsky. The impact of technological progress on the economic system is a central theme in Lederer’s work, whereas its linkage to the market structure and more specifically to the emergence of monopolies is also shared by Hilferding. Moreover, Lederer argued that business cycles constitute an endogenous characteristic of capitalism and should not only be attributed to external shocks which disrupt an otherwise harmonious economic environment. In his major work Technical Progress and Unemployment (1938), Lederer argued that business cycles could arise from the disruptions created by innovations which are introduced discontinuously into the economic system, a thesis that is traditionally known to be of Schumpeterian inspiration. Hilferding and Tugan–Baranowsky delivered theories of economic fluctuations focusing on the role of disproportional growth between production sectors. It is interesting to note that, in his early writings, Lederer had adopted and extended many of Hilferding’s and Tugan-Baranowsky’s theses presented in their disproportionality theories. In his respective analysis, Lederer referred to (technological) unemployment as a main feature of the economic system as a whole, whereas he tended to link it to technical change and economic development.

Filosofía

Mathematical Knowledge and the Role of an Observer: Ontological and epistemological aspects

As David Berlinski writes (1997), the existence and nature of mathematics is a more compelling and far deeper problem than any of the problems raised by mathematics itself. Here we analyze the essence of mathematics making the main emphasis on mathematics as an advanced system of knowledge. This knowledge consists of structures and represents structures, existence of which depends on observers in a nonstandard way. Structural nature of mathematics explains its reasonable effectiveness.

sociologia

Hillary Clinton pidió luchar para evitar el fin de la democracia en EEUU. “Trump no la está garantizando”

La excandidata presidencial de Estados Unidos, Hillary Clinton, fustigó la gestión del presidente Donald Trump y alertó que “nuestras instituciones y tradiciones democráticas están bajo asedio“. Precisó que hay cinco frentes que han asaltado en esa nación, los cuales son: El asalto al Estado de Derecho, el ataque a la “legitimidad” de las elecciones, “la guerra” que Trump “contra la verdad y la razón” poniendo así de relieve las mentiras que el mandatario ha contado en los últimos meses y los ataques a la prensa y el abuso de poder, conflictos de intereses y “flagrantes violaciones” de las reglas de la ética.