Nacionales

Presidentes de Guyana y Cuba se reúnen y discuten intensificar sus relaciones

San Juan, 20 ene (EFE) . El presidente de Guyana, David Granger, está de regreso en su país, luego de ...

JVR: No se descarta una invasión militar desde Colombia

ND / 20 ene 2019.- Así lo dijo el exvicepresidente y exministro chavista José Vicente Rangel en su programa dominical ...

¿Qué se necesita para lograr el quiebre del régimen de Maduro?

Elkis Bejarano Delgado 19/01/2019. Con un nuevo aire, la oposición marca una ruta para salir del régimen dictatorial; hay notable reconocimiento ...

Bolsonaro pide a Venezuela que no “dé guarida a los terroristas del ELN”

Brasilia, 19 ene (EFE).- El presidente de Brasil, Jair Bolsonaro, pidió a Venezuela que no “dé guarida” ni “protección” a ...

Vente: Guaidó debe asumir la Presidencia el 23-E con “todas sus letras”

ND / 19 ene 2019.- El partido Vente Venezuela, que dirige María Corina Machado, pidió este sábado que el próximo ...

Nicolás Maduro a Donald Tump; Nos podemos entender, negociar y acordar

http://www.costadelsolfm.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Mar%C3%ADa-Elvira-Salazar.jpg18/01/2019. El gobernante Nicolás Maduro envió un mensaje al presidente estadounidense Donald Trump, reiterándole su voluntad de conversar directamente con ...

Omar Prieto: Zulia se independizará si hay un Gobierno de transición

Jhoan Meléndez / 18 ene 2019.- El gobernador del estado Zulia, Omar Prieto, afirmó este viernes en un evento oficialista ...

Carola Chávez: Estudiar no supone más esfuerzo que batir cemento bajo el sol

ND / 19 ene 2019.- La humorista chavista Carola Chávez articuló este sábado con mayor precisión lo dicho ayer por ...

En un callejón sin salida

Temir Porras Ponceleón18/01/2019. El período durante el cual Hugo Chávez presidió los destinos de Venezuela (1999-2013) estuvo marcado por logros ...

La estrategia de doble poder

Leopoldo Puchi18/01/2019. En medio de una arrolladora tormenta económica signada por la hiperinflación, se ha continuado librando la lucha por ...

Aristóbulo Istúriz: Maestros y obreros ganarán lo mismo, no importa si estudiaron o no

Versión Final18-01-19.-El sector educativo le dice adiós a las tablas salariales. El ministro de Educación, Aristóbulo Istúriz, informó este viernes ...

Duque clausura diálogo con ELN en Cuba y lanza advertencia a Venezuela

AFP18/01/2019. El presidente de Colombia, Iván Duque, puso fin el viernes al moribundo proceso de paz con el ELN en ...

Leyes

Diagnosing Sorites arguments

This is a discussion of Delia Fara’s theory of vagueness, and of its solution to the Sorites paradox, criticizing some of the details of the account, but agreeing that its central insight will be a part of any solution to the problem. I also consider a wider range of philosophical puzzles that involve arguments that are structurally similar to the argument of the Sorites paradox, and argue that the main ideas of her account of vagueness helps to respond to some of those puzles.

Política

Cardinal Richelieu’s ghost returns

“Problems,” the Cardinal said with contempt, “are not there to be solved, but to be placed on someone else’s doorstep. It is only your problem if you are lazy and stupid enough to let it be your problem. Make it the problem of the Turks, and the Iranians, and the Syrians, and the Kurds.” “How can we make it someone else’s problem?” “Use your brain, if you have one,” said Richelieu. “The Kurds will not go away merely because a few American soldiers leave Syria. They have been there for two thousand years, they have a taste of nationhood in northern Iraq, and they have the best ground troops in the región.

Ciencia y tecnología

Specification Patterns for Robotic Missions

Mobile and general-purpose robots increasingly support our everyday life, requiring dependable robotics control software. Creating such software mainly amounts to implementing their complex behaviors known as missions. Recognizing the need, a large number of domain-specific specification languages has been proposed. These, in addition to traditional logical languages, allow the use of formally specified missions for synthesis, verification, simulation, or guiding the implementation. For instance, the logical language LTL is commonly used by experts to specify missions, as an input for planners, which synthesize the behavior a robot should have. Unfortunately, domain-specific languages are usually tied to specific robot models, while logical languages such as LTL are difficult to use by non-experts. We present a catalog of 22 mission specification patterns for mobile robots, together with tooling for instantiating, composing, and compiling the patterns to create mission specifications.

Crítica

Epistemic structural realism, modality and laws of nature

According to epistemic structural realism (EER) scientific theories provide us only with knowledge about the structure of the unobservable world, but not about its nature. The most significant objection that this position has faced is the so-called Newman’s problem. In this paper I offer an alternative objection to EER. I argue that its formulation leads to undesirable skeptical positions in two fields close to scientific realism: the debates on modality and laws of nature. I also show that there is an interesting sense in which my objection is stronger than the one offered by Newman.

Educacion

Creative Destruction in Economics: Nietzsche, Sombart, Schumpeter

In today’s standard economic theory, Schumpeter stands out as being highly original. However, his great intellectual independence is generally misinterpreted as meaning that his ideas appear on the scene only with him. This is far from the truth (see Reinert 2002), also as it applies to the key concept of ‘creative destruction’. This idea itself is a very old one. In this paper we shall argue that the idea of ‘creative destruction’ enters the late 19th Century Zeitgeist through the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Going back further in time, the process of creation and destruction plays a central role in Hinduism, the religion which so inspired Nietzsche’s Erzieher (educator) Arthur Schopenhauer. Nietzsche’s own ideas about creative destruction, as popularized through his Also Sprach Zarathustra, had a profound and wideranging influence on generations of German-speaking artists and intellectuals (Sokel 1959). We shall further argue that – contrary to the firm beliefs of the economics profession – the term ‘creative destruction’ was brought into economics not by Schumpeter but by Werner Sombart (1863-1941), the economist who was probably most influenced by Nietzsche.

Internacionales

Placing the USA on a collapse continuum with Dmitry Orlov

Some readers might recall how Alexander Solzhenitsyn repeatedly declared in the 1980s that he was sure that the Soviet regime would collapse and that he would return to Russia. He was, of course, vitriolically ridiculed by all the “specialists” and “experts”. After all, why would anybody want to listen to some weird Russian exile with politically suspicious ideas (there were rumors of “monarchism” and “anti-Semitism”) when the Soviet Union was an immense superpower, armed to the teeth with weapons, with an immense security service, with political allies and supporters worldwide? Not only that, but all the “respectable” specialists and experts were unanimous that, while the Soviet regime had various problems, it was very far from collapse.

Opinion

Newton da Costa: Pasión y contradicción

En el año 1874, un matemático ruso llamado Georg Cantor creó la teoría de los conjuntos. En poco tiempo se notó que todos los patrones matemáticos podrían construirse con base a la teoría de los conjuntos, y así esta teoría se convirtió esencialmente en la base de la matemática. Sin embargo, conviene acotar que la noción de conjunto es algo extremadamente abstracto y no se confunde con el sistema de objetos o totalidades de la vida cotidiana. Pero alrededor de treinta años después comenzaron a surgir paradojas en esa teoría. La paradoja de Russell, la paradoja de Burali-Forti y varias otras, que no conviene explicar aquí porque demandaría mucho tiempo. Esas cuestiones se tornaron un problema filosóficamente increíble: ¿cómo eran posibles las paradojas en las matemáticas y la lógica tradicionales, hasta entonces el ejemplo más perfecto de conocimiento? Aquello era aterrador, completamente extraño, nadie conseguía explicarlo, originó una revolución. Ésa fue considerada la tercera gran crisis de la historia de las matemáticas. La primera fue con los pitagóricos, cuando descubrieron los números irracionales. La segunda con el cálculo diferencial e integral, que era un área completamente sin fundamento lógico, pero también fue superada. Y, finalmente, la tercera gran crisis fue la cantoriana, cuando se descubrió que la teoría de los conjuntos resultaba inconsistente y contradictoria, no se sustentaba. Se intentó resolver la cuestión manteniendo la lógica clásica e imaginando cuáles eran las modificaciones que podríamos realizar en la teoría de los conjuntos para superar las paradojas. La lógica clásica y esencialmente la lógica que nació con Aristóteles y tuvo su formulación actual por parte de Gottlob Frege y Russell allá por los años 1870 y 1914 respectivamente. El problema de la contradicción es absolutamente fundamental para la lógica clásica, que no la admite.

Ambiente

De la distinción entre lógica formal y lógica dialéctica

Leaving aside the reasons of traditional philosophy which in the majority of cases stems from Thomist roots, it is convenient to discuss others no less tenacious which rest upon the Hegelian. Marxist dialectic. The definition of ‘dialectical logic’ that Lenin puts forth in his Philosophical Notebooks rests upon two suppositions. First: the ‘world’ or ‘reality’ can and should be known in its totality, and in addition, in a certain type of totality, -one which is submitted to the dynamism of the temporal. Second: there is a separate and proper discipline which aims at the attainment of that knowledge. To accept both suppositions is to admit the persistence of a metaphysical philosophy which is separate from and superior to the positive sciences. The dialectic is the metaphysics which corresponds to a dynamic vision of reality, if it simultaneously takes into consideration the general description of the aggregate of entities that constitutes the world and the establishment of their changing connections.

Economía

Asia stumbles into year of the currency war

By his own metrics, US President Donald Trump is losing the trade war, and humiliatingly so. Sure, China’s gross domestic product is taking big hits, no matter what Beijing admits in official data. Trends in exports, fixed-asset investment, purchasing managers’ orders and Apple Inc’s earnings are all evidence of a marked downshift in mainland activity. But Trump had three goals in mind when he slapped tariffs on US$250 billion of Chinese goods – two in the short run, one for the longer term. The first two were a big reversal in trade-deficit trends and a celebratory Wall Street rally. The long-term objective was halting China’s designs on dominating tech and other key sectors by 2025.

Filosofía

Lógica Dialéctica Lógica Formal

Este trabajo tratará del tema: 1) en plan de. Contraposición entre L.D.y L.F.(formal, matemática, simbólica, logística); 2) en plan de programa de investigación; 3) aquí no se tratará sino del “cálculo de predicados”, no de relacional, proposicional, conjuntual.

sociologia

Congress is now three times as Jewish as the US is

More than 6 percent of the new Congress is Jewish, with 34 Jews among the total of 535 lawmakers in the US House of Representatives and Senate. Jews make up 2% of the US population, so Congress as a whole is more than thrice as Jewish as the country in general, according to a new study by the Pew Research Center on religion in the new Congress, which was inaugurated Thursday. The number is even larger in the Senate, where eight, or 8%, of the 100 members are Jewish. This Congress has four more Jews than its predecessor, which had 30 Jewish members. But it’s far from the most Jewish Congress ever. That was the 1993 Congress, which boasted 51 Jews — nearly 10% of the total.