Nacionales

Respuesta a Rafael Ramírez

Einstein Millán Arcia 22/09/2017. El ex presidente de PDVSA y ex ministro de Petróleo y Minería Rafael Ramírez desde Nueva York, ...

Negociaciones en Santo Domingo, por Leopoldo Puchi

Leopoldo Puchi21/09/2017. Se ha dado inicio a una nueva ronda de negociaciones entre Gobierno y oposición, realizada por iniciativa de ...

Lo que no se ve, artículo del embajador Rafael Ramírez

Rafael Ramírez / Embajador17/09/2017. Solía decir un viejo amigo que en política lo más peligroso es lo que no se ...

Cumaná en emergencia sanitaria: el motivo es indignante

Servando Marín Lista  17/09/17 Las playas de Cumaná no estan aptas para los bañistas por los altos niveles de bacterias enterococos ...

La cuestión petrolera, por el embajador Rafael Ramírez

Embajador Rafael Ramírez10/09/2017. Para enfrentar la crisis económica del país resulta vital comprender el comportamiento de los elementos y variables ...

¡Hagámoslo, pero ya!

Luis Britto García  10/09/2017. Guerras en todos los frentes no pueden ser combatidas con pasividad unilateral. Activemos las iniciativas que ...

¿Tiene el poder?

César Tinoco08 de Septiembre de 2017. He escrito sobre este libro con anterioridad. Se titula Entendiendo el conflicto y la guerra y ...

Moraicca propone Ley Especial para superar crisis alimentaria

AlbaTV 8 sept. 2017 - Desde la convocatoria a iniciar un proceso Constituyente hecha por el presidente Nicolás Maduro el pasado ...

Plan Chamba Juvenil ha incorporado 594 mil 63 venezolanos

Aporrea.org Caracas, 07 de septiembre de 2017.- El Plan Chamba Juvenil —que tiene como objetivo incorporar a jóvenes desocupados al sistema ...

De bloqueo a bloqueo: 1902-2017, por Luis Britto García

Luis Britto García06/09/2017 Un bloqueo comienza desde adentro. Políticos amorales  firman tratados y contratos de interés público con cláusulas inconstitucionales ...

Presidenciales de 2018, por Leopoldo Puchi

Leopoldo Puchi 31/08/2017. En reciente rueda de prensa con medios internacionales, el presidente Nicolás Maduro insistió en señalar que a ...

Maduro: Hasta agosto de 2019 Venezuela tendrá Asamblea Nacional Constituyente

Daniela Bracho / Ruth UzcáteguiPrensa Presidencial30/08/2017. El presidente de la República, Nicolás Maduro, expresó la noche de este miércoles 30 ...

Leyes

On the Decidability of the Ordered Structures of Numbers

The ordered structures of natural, integer, rational and real numbers are studied here. It is known that the theories of these numbers in the language of order are decidable and finitely axiomatizable. Also, their theories in the language of order and addition are decidable and infinitely axiomatizable. For the language of order and multiplication, it is known that the theories of N and Z are not decidable (and so not axiomatizable by a computably enumerable set of sentences). By Tarski’s theorem, the multiplicative ordered structure of R is decidable also; here we prove this result directly and present an axiomatization. The structure of Q in the language of order and multiplication seems to be missing in the literature; here we show the decidability of its theory by the technique of quantifier elimination and after presenting an infinite axiomatization for this structure we prove that it is not finitely axiomatizable.

Política

La democracia como ideología

Damos por supuesto que la democracia es un sistema político con múltiples variantes «realmente existentes». Por ello podríamos afirmar (valiéndonos de una fórmula que el mismo Aristóteles utilizó en otros contextos) que la democracia «se dice de muchas maneras». Pero la democracia es también un «sistema de ideologías», es decir, de ideas confusas, por no decir erróneas, que figuran como contenidos de una falsa conciencia, vinculada a los intereses de determinados grupos o clases sociales, en tanto se enfrentan mutuamente de un modo más o menos explícito o encubierto. ¿Es posible según esto analizar las democracias «realmente existentes» al margen de las ideologías que las envuelven y que envuelven también al analista? No entraremos aquí en esta cuestión, puesto que nuestro objetivo es hablar más que de las democracias realmente existentes, de las ideologías que envuelven a estas democracias, sin necesidad de comenzar negando que las democracias puedan ser algo más que meras ideologías, y aun sin perjuicio de reconocer la necesidad de componentes ideológicos en la misma estructura de las democracias que existen realmente, por hipótesis. Comenzaremos presentando un par de consideraciones previas que sirvan de referencia de lo que entendemos por «realidad» en el momento de hablar de las democracias como nombre de realidades existentes en el mundo político efectivo.

Ciencia y tecnología

The “go-stop-go” of Italian civil nuclear programs, beset by lack of strategic planning, exploitation for personal gain and unscrupulous political conspiracies: 1946-1987

The Italian civil nuclear projects had a very early origin, with the first ideas originating as far back as 1945. The construction of the first three plants dated back to the period 1956-1964, and at that time Italy ranked third in the world for installed power. However, the very ambitious projects were immediately after thwarted in the early 1960s by the “Ippolito trial”. Actually, a whole range of advanced programmes for the development of the country went to a stop, since they clashed with national and international major powers. Italy was relegated to a second rank power. The fourth nuclear plan was designed in 1970, and its commercial operation began in 1981. In the meantime, a strong anti-nuclear movement grew, and the position of the pro-nuclear Italian Communist Party began to change. After the Chernobyl accident, a national referendum was held, which in 1987 put an end to the Italian nuclear programmes.

Crítica

Fantastic deductive systems in probability theory on generalizations of fuzzy structures

The aim of this paper is to introduce the notion of fantastic deductive systems on generalizations of fuzzy structures, and to emphasize their role in the probability theory on these algebras. We give a characterization of commutative pseudo-BE algebras and we generalize an axiom system consisting of four identities to the case of commutative pseudo-BE algebras. We define the fantastic deductive systems of pseudo-BE algebras and we investigate their properties. It is proved that, if a pseudo-BE(A) algebra A is commutative, then all deductive systems of A are fantastic. Moreover, we generalize the notions of measures, state-measures and measure-morphisms to the case of pseudo-BE algebras and we also prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all Bosbach states on a bounded pseudo-BE algebra and the set of its state-measures.

Educacion

Set Theory Axioms Using Explication

This paper provides a complete suite of axioms for a version of set theory that I call Explication. Explication borrows from the two most prominent existing systems of set theory. Explication starts with class variables. After several steps, some of these class variables are identified as sets. The most crucial step is to identify classes which can explicitly say, in a finite statement, which other classes are its members. The reader is cautioned that the suite of axioms presented is a complete treatment of Explication. Statements which may or may not be true in other axiom systems are not significant.

Internacionales

China and India: The Roots of Hostility

Last but not least, China has always seen itself as a superior, unrivaled civilization-state. The CCP leadership consciously conducts itself as the heir to China’s imperial legacy, often employing the symbolism and rhetoric of empire. From primary school textbooks to television historical dramas, the state-controlled media has force-fed generations of Chinese a diet of nationalist bluster and imperial China’s grandeur. One lesson Chinese school textbooks teach is that “strength leads to expansion and weakness to contraction.” That is why Beijing no longer feels constrained by bilateral or multilateral pacts or treaties that it signed on to “when China was weak.” A common refrain is that “other countries need to ‘get used to’ its assertive posture and Chinese maritime forays, whether they like it or not.” So “history” battles over territorial disputes are essentially about the future of regional order: Pax Sinica versus Pax Americana. Beijing’s assessment of the United States as being distracted internally, and weakened diplomatically, has emboldened Chinese leadership to be aggressive.

Opinion

Compressibility, laws of nature, initial conditions and complexity

We critically analyse the point of view for which laws of nature are just a mean to compress data. Discussing some basic notions of dynamical systems and information theory, we show that the idea that the analysis of large amount of data by means of an algorithm of compression is equivalent to the knowledge one can have from scientific laws, is rather naive. In particular we discuss the subtle conceptual topic of the initial conditions of phenomena which are generally incompressible. Starting from this point, we argue that laws of nature represent more than a pure compression of data, and that the availability of large amount of data, in general, is not particularly useful to understand the behaviour of complex phenomena.

Ambiente

Would Two Dimensions be World Enough for Spacetime?

We consider various curious features of general relativity, and relativistic field theory, in two spacetime dimensions. In particular, we discuss: the vanishing of the Einstein tensor; the failure of an initial-value formulation for vacuum spacetimes; the status of singularity theorems; the non-existence of a Newtonian limit; the status of the cosmological constant; and the character of matter fields, including perfect fluids and electromagnetic fields. We conclude with a discussion of what constrains our understanding of physics in different dimensions.

Economía

Relatedness, Knowledge Diffusion, and the Evolution of Bilateral Trade

During the last decades two important contributions have reshaped our understanding of international trade. First, countries trade more with those with whom they share history, language, and culture, suggesting that trade is limited by information frictions. Second, countries are more likely to start exporting products that are similar to their current exports, suggesting that knowledge diffusion among related industries is a key constrain shaping the diversification of exports. But does knowledge about how to export to a destination also diffuses among related products and geographic neighbors? Do countries need to learn how to trade each product to each destination? Here, we use bilateral trade data from 2000 to 2015 to show that countries are more likely to increase their exports of a product to a destination when: (i) they export related products to it, (ii) they export the same product to the neighbor of a destination, (iii) they have neighbors who export the same product to that destination.

Filosofía

Taking Heisenberg’s Potentia Seriously

It is argued that quantum theory is best understood as requiring an ontological dualism of res extensa and res potentia, where the latter is understood per Heisenberg’s original proposal, and the former is roughly equivalent to Descartes’ ‘extended substance.’ However, this is not a dualism of mutually exclusive substances in the classical Cartesian sense, and therefore does not inherit the infamous ‘mind-body’ problem. Rather, res potentia and res extensa are defined as mutually implicative ontological extants that serve to explain the key conceptual challenges of quantum theory; in particular, nonlocality, entanglement, null measurements, and wave function collapse. It is shown that a natural account of these quantum perplexities emerges, along with a need to reassess our usual ontological commitments involving the nature of space and time.

sociologia

Futuros sociales en tiempos de crisis

Ramón Ramos Torre Resumen: En este artículo se reconstruye selectivamente la sociología del futuro de los últimos cincuenta años para rescatar algunos de sus elementos y construir una analítica y una problemática del futuro en tiempos de crisis. En su marco se reconstruye la evidencia empírica sobre el futuro social proporcionada por nueve grupos de […]