Nacionales

El programa de Falcón

Eduardo Fernández11 de Mayo 2018. Henri Falcón representa la única opción real de transición pacífica en el corto plazo. Toda ...

EEUU-Venezuela: la inercia del pasado Leopoldo Puchi

Diario El UniversalCaracas 11/05/2018.-Las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela se han deteriorado a tal punto que es difícil imaginar ...

Einstein Millán Arcia: PDVSA; De Ramírez a Quevedo / Restrospectiva

11-05-2018. Revisando la cronología previa y posterior a los sucesos ocurridos en PDVSA a partir de Noviembre de 2017, son ...

Víctor Álvarez: La dolarización puede sustentar el desarrollo de un modelo productivo y exportador

Enrique Meléndez11/05/2018. El señalamiento lo hizo el también Premio Nacional de Ciencias 2013 en un foro que organizó Conindustria el pasado miércoles ...

Luis Vicente León: Será la elección con la participación más baja

11-05-2018. El presidente de la encuestadora Datanalisis, Luis Vicente León, explicó que los comicios previstos para el 20 de mayo, ...

La fascistoide socialdemocracia venezolana

Jorge GiordaniLa lucha por la libertades una lucha de nunca acabar.Eduardo Galeano10/05/2018. En la fase descendente de la lógica del ...

Leopoldo Puchi: Colombia y el “fondo de reconstrucción”

10/05/2018. Según informan algunos medios, el presidente colombiano, Juan Manuel Santos, habría expresado su preocupación, durante su reciente visita a ...

José Antonio Gil Yepes: El autogol de la abstención

10/05/2018. Ningún dirigente de oposición reivindicó el error de haber retirado, en 2005, los candidatos a diputados, perdiendo casi el ...

La ruina de Venezuela no se debe al «socialismo» ni a la «revolución»

Manuel Sutherland09-05-2018. Más que una transformación socialista (o desarrollista), la economía venezolana vivió una masiva transferencia de renta hacia el ...

Francisco Rodríguez: Duplicaremos la producción petrolera y pediremos ayuda financiera por $60.000 millones

ND / nota de prensa / 8 may 2018.- El jefe del programa de gobierno de Henri Falcón, Francisco Rodríguez, ...

Embajadora de EEUU en la ONU, Nikky Haley: Es tiempo de que Maduro “se vaya” por el bien de “la seguridad del continente”

Agencias 08-05-18.-La embajadora de Estados Unidos ante la ONU, Nikky Haley, aseguró hoy que Latinoamérica no puede permitirse que las “últimos ...

Problemas monetarios, hiperinflación y dolarización (y IV)

Pedro Conde Regardiz 07 de Mayo de 2018. El modelo de funcionamiento de la economía real venezolana condiciona el éxito que ...

Leyes

Life, the universe, and everything – 42 fundamental questions

In The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, by Douglas Adams, the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything is found to be 42 — but the meaning of this is left open to interpretation. We take it to mean that there are 42 fundamental questions which must be answered on the road to full enlightenment, and we attempt a first draft (or personal selection) of these ultimate questions, on topics ranging from the cosmological constant and origin of the universe to the origin of life and consciousness.

Política

America Can’t Be Trusted Anymore

And that’s why I’m not expecting a major breakthrough when Trump and Kim get together (assuming they do). Neither side is going to make significant concessions for the simple reason that they don’t want to be played for a sucker. We might get some sort of symbolic agreement (such as a temporary suspension of missile tests while broader talks on denuclearization continue ad infinitum), but I can’t imagine Kim will do anything that might put his own survival at risk should “perfidious America” change its mind.

Ciencia y tecnología

Heat flowing from cold to hot without external intervention by using a ‘thermal inductor’

The cooling of a quantity of boiling water all the way down to freezing by simply thermally connecting it to a thermal bath held at ambient temperature without external intervention would be quite unexpected. We describe the equivalent of a ‘thermal inductor’ composed of a Peltier element and an electric inductance, which can drive the temperature difference between two bodies to change sign by imposing a certain inertia on the flow of heat, thereby enabling continuing heat transfer from the chilling body to its warmer counterpart. We show theoretically and experimentally that such a process is possible and fully complies with the second law of thermodynamics. With further progress in thermoelectric materials, it could serve to cool hot materials well below ambient temperature without external energy supply.

Crítica

Bolzano’s measurable numbers: are they real?

During the early 1830’s Bernard Bolzano, working in Prague, wrote a manuscript giving a foundational account of numbers and their properties. In the final section of his work he described what he called `infinite number expressions’ and `measurable numbers’. This work was evidently an attempt to provide an improved proof of the sufficiency of the criterion usually known as the `Cauchy criterion’ for the convergence of an infinite sequence. Bolzano had in fact published this criterion four years earlier than Cauchy who, in his work of 1821, made no attempt at a proof. Any such proof required the construction or definition of real numbers and this, in essence, was what Bolzano achieved in his work on measurable numbers. It therefore pre-dates the well-known constructions of Dedekind, Cantor and many others by several decades. Bolzano’s manuscript was partially published in 1962 and more fully published in 1976. We give an account of measurable numbers, the properties Bolzano proved about them, and the controversial reception they have prompted since their publication.

Educacion

Spectral gap and definability

We relate the notions of spectral gap for unitary representations and subfactors with definability of certain important sets in the corresponding structures. We give several applications of this relationship.

Internacionales

Trump’s Step Beyond the ‘Art of the Deal’ Changes Everything

Incidentally, the escalation and exchange of missile fire across the Israeli border on Wednesday and Thursday morning, was not Iranian in origin (there are no IRGC near the Golan). Nor was the exchange initiated by Iran, but rather by Israel, striking Syrian targets as it has done regularly over recent weeks. On this occasion, however, Israel intended to cast Iran as ‘the accused’ (the pre-announced opening of the shelters in occupied Golan by Israel was something of a ‘give-away’ to a coming false flag event), to further the pressures on Tehran. Trump’s ‘step beyond’ Art of the Deal strategies, to regime change (in Iran) does not bode well for China’s North Korea strategy. If Trump expects capitulation from Jong Un – and doesn’t get it, then China will have little option but to get involved in order to deter Trump from any ‘bloody-nose’ exercise, or from attempted regime change. China does not want Jong Un’s capitulation or removal — It has no desire to have an US proxy – or its missiles – on its border.

Opinion

Two theorems about the P versus NP problem

Two theorems about the P versus NP problem be proved in this article (1) There exists a language L , that the statement L∈P is independent of ZFC. (2) There exists a language L∈NP , for any polynomial time deterministic Turing machine M , we cannot prove L is decidable on M .

Ambiente

A Theoretical Limit to Physicalism: A Non-Technical Explanation of the Gemini Theorem

The Gemini theorem asserts that, given certain reasonable assumptions, no physical system can be certainly aware of its own existence. The theorem can be proved algorithmically, but the proof of this theorem is somewhat obscure, and there exists very little literature on it. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief non-technical summary of the theorem and its proof, with a view to stimulating critical discussion of the proof and its implications. Since the theorem implies that a violation of the conservation of energy will take place within the brains of conscious human beings, it has obvious implications for any physical theory.

Economía

Redefining the Economical Power of Nations

The measurement of economies no longer by GDP alone, but by an Index that includes other important factors as well, a Social factors relativized GDP.

Social factors relativized GDP: GDP – GDP x GINI = K_Index Written differently: (1 – GINI) x GDP = K_Index Inflation indexed Version: (1 – GINI – Inflation) x GDP = K_Index_Infl.

Productivity Index: K_Index / Labor Force = K_PROD Inflation indexed Productivity Index: K_Index_Infl. / Labor Force = K_PROD_Infl.

Debt-to-K_Index: National debt / K_Index = K_Debt Debt-to-K_Index_Infl: National debt / K_Index_Infl. = K_Debt_Infl.

Filosofía

The role of Symbolic Lenguage on the transformation of Mathematics

One important factor to be considered in the process of algebrization of mathematics is the emergence of symbolic language in the seventeenth century. Focussing on three works, In Artem analyticen Isagoge (1591) by François Viète (1540-1603); Cursus Mathematicus (1634-1637-1642) by Pierre Hérigone (1580-1643) and Geometriae Speciosae Elementa (1659) by Pietro Mengoli (1626/7-1686), in this article we analyse two relevant aspects of symbolic language: the significance of the notation in the symbolic language and the role of Hérigone’s new symbolic method. This analysis allows us to better understand the role played by this circulation of ideas in the formative process of symbolic language in mathematics..

sociologia

When panic makes you blind: a chaotic route to systemic risk

We present an analytical model to study the role of expectation feedbacks and overlapping portfolios on systemic stability of financial systems. Building on [Corsi et al., 2016], we model a set of financial institutions having Value at Risk capital requirements and investing in a portfolio of risky assets, whose prices evolve stochastically in time and are endogenously driven by the trading decisions of financial institutions. Assuming that they use adaptive expectations of risk, we show that the evolution of the system is described by a slow-fast random dynamical system, which can be studied analytically in some regimes. The model shows how the risk expectations play a central role in determining the systemic stability of the financial system and how wrong risk expectations may create panic-induced reduction or over-optimistic expansion of balance sheets.