Hemeroteca del mes diciembre, 2014

La disputa por el Atlántico Sur

Por • 20 dic, 2014 • Category: Política

La seguridad de cada uno de estos países pasa por evitar que otras potencias se hagan presentes en el Atlántico Sur. Por eso los gobiernos del PT, con diferentes énfasis, han coincidido con la Marina, y también con la fuerza aérea, en la necesidad no sólo de modernizar las tres armas sino de hacerlo en base a la transferencia de tecnología, que permita la creación de un complejo militar-industrial autónomo como establece la Estrategia Nacional de Defensa aprobada en 2008 por Lula. Uno de los núcleos de ese desarrollo es el complejo naval de Itaguaí, en el estado de Rio de Janeiro. Se trata de un conjunto de instalaciones fabriles, de la industria nuclear y astilleros donde se construyen los submarinos, que Lopes considera “comparable a las principales instalaciones de ese género en Estados Unidos, Rusia y China” (Defesanet, 30 de agosto de 2014).



“La caída de los precios del petróleo obedece a que entramos en una nueva recesión mundial”

Por • 20 dic, 2014 • Category: Economía

Sobre la caída de los precios del crudo se enuncian múltiples hipótesis explicativas, pero lo que resulta innegable son los efectos sobre la economía global. A juicio del economista ecológico, miembro de ATTAC y de CGT, Tasio Urra, la debacle de los precios en el último trimestre no obedece a un exceso de oferta sino principalmente a una caída de la demanda, sobre todo por parte de los BRICS y los países “emergentes”. “Entramos en una nueva recesión mundial”, advierte el profesor en el departamento de Dirección de Empresas en la Facultad de Económicas de la Universitat de Valencia y director del Máster en Cosultoría Estratégica de la misma universidad. Además de numerosos artículos en revistas especializadas, en 2010 publicó con el pseudónimo Jokin Zabala “Las mentiras de la crisis… ¿Una anécdota en el ciberespacio…?” (Liber Factory).



La debilidad de Rusia y su complicado bloque con China

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Internacionales

Desde los acuerdos de los primeros años del actual siglo en materia de demarcación fronteriza (2004) y en especial desde el estallido de la crisis y los acuerdos de créditos a cambio de petróleo entre las grandes petroleras rusas (Rosneft y Transneft) y China del año 2009, las relaciones han avanzado mucho. El bloqueo ruso a la entrada de empresas chinas como CNPC y SINOPEC en yacimientos rusos se levantó el año pasado y especialmente tras la aparición de las sanciones el vínculo político ha avanzado. Las visitas de Putin a China y del primer ministro Li Keqiang a Rusia, en mayo y octubre, levantaron casi todas las restricciones a la entrada de capital chino en Rusia, algunas de ellas claramente discriminatorias con respecto al trato dado al capital occidental. Estos avances no despejan sin embargo los aspectos que impiden que el abrazo chino sea una alternativa a la relación económica y política de Rusia con Occidente.



Towards an Informational Pragmatic Realism

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Educacion

I discuss the design of the method of entropic inference as a general framework for reasoning under conditions of uncertainty. The main contribution of this discussion is to emphasize the pragmatic elements in the derivation. More specifically: (1) Probability theory is designed as the uniquely natural tool for representing states of incomplete information. (2) An epistemic notion of information is defined in terms of its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of ideally rational agents. (3) The method of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is designed through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting framework includes as special cases both MaxEnt and Bayes’ rule. It therefore unifies entropic and Bayesian methods into a single general inference scheme. I find that similar pragmatic elements are an integral part of Putnam’s internal realism, of Floridi’s informational structural realism, and also of van Fraasen’s empiricist structuralism. I conclude with the conjecture that their valuable insights can be incorporated into a single coherent doctrine – an informational pragmatic realism.



Disregarding the ‘Hole Argument’

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Ambiente

Jim Weatherall has suggested that Einstein’s hole argument, as presented by Earman and Norton (1987), is based on a misleading use of mathematics. I argue on the contrary that Weatherall demands an implausible restriction on how mathematics is used. The hole argument, on the other hand, is in no new danger at all.



Perspectivas económicas 2015

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Nacionales

Precios petroleros relativamente bajos probablemente dominen la escena económica de Venezuela durante 2015.



Einstein and the Formal Equivalence of Mass and Energy

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Leyes

This is a brief look at how Einstein explored formal symmetries between quantized matter and quantized radiation between 1903 and 1925. Specifically he employed thermodynamic comparisons between the ideal molecular gas and the photon gas. His achievements are tied in with a more general pattern in physics to explore formal symmetries between quantized mass and quantized energy.



The inductive theory of natural selection

Por • 19 dic, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The theory of natural selection has two forms. Deductive theory describes how populations change over time. One starts with an initial population and some rules for change. From those assumptions, one calculates the future state of the population. Deductive theory predicts how populations adapt to environmental challenge. Inductive theory describes the causes of change in populations. One starts with a given amount of change. One then assigns different parts of the total change to particular causes. Inductive theory analyzes alternative causal models for how populations have adapted to environmental challenge. This chapter emphasizes the inductive analysis of cause.



From homotopy operads to infinity-operads

Por • 18 dic, 2014 • Category: Opinion

The goal of the present paper is to compare, in a precise way, the two notions of operads up to homotopy which appear in the literature. Namely, we construct a functor from the category of strict unital homotopy colored operads to the category of infinity-operads. The former notion, that we introduce, is the operadic generalization of the notion of A-infinity-categories and the latter notion was defined by Moerdijk–Weiss in order to generalize the simplicial notion of infinity-category of Joyal–Lurie. This functor extends in two directions the simplicial nerve of Faonte–Lurie for A-infinity-categories and the homotopy coherent nerve of Moerdijk–Weiss for dg operads.



Washington Seeks an Excuse to Wage a Nuclear War on Russia? “We’re Close to the Precipice. Will the Public Remain Silent?”

Por • 18 dic, 2014 • Category: Internacionales

The world is more nervous about the drift toward nuclear war between the U.S. and Russia than at any time since 1962’s Cuban Missile Crisis. When French President Francois Hollande urgently side-tracked his return-flight from a diplomatic mission recently, in order to meet with Russian President Vladimir Putin at Moscow’s Vnukovo Airport, at a private room that had been scoured ahead of time to eliminate any possible bugging devices, there was speculation as to what had caused Hollande’s sudden detour, and there were even rumors of a possible cause being an American “false-flag” event in the works to be blamed on Russia as a pretext for going to war against Russia, just as Russia had been falsely blamed for the Ukrainian military’s downing of Malaysia’s airliner MH17 onJuly 17th. All that was publicly released about the two-hour meeting were platitudes, hardly anything that would have justified side-tracking Hollande’s flight so as to surprise intelligence agencies and be able to meet the Russian leader in an untapped room.