Hemeroteca del mes junio, 2015

Two Paths to Infinite Thought: Alain Badiou and Jacques Derrida on the Question of the Whole

Por • 26 jun, 2015 • Category: Filosofía

This essay defends an idea that is no longer fashionable: that there is a whole. The motivation for a defense of this notion has nothing to do with intellectual conservatism or a penchant for Hegel. Rather, what we hope to establish is a second path into what Alain Badiou has called the ‘Cantorian Revolution’. In order to open this path we undertake a three-fold task. First, we deconstruct Badiou’s onto-logical project by isolating the suppressed significance of Ernst Zermelo. This point allows us to recover a Cantorian possibility for addressing the infinite as an inconsistent whole. Second, we turn to work by the logician Graham Priest in order to remove the absurdity of discussing true contradictions. Finally, we return to Jacques Derrida’s early work on Husserl in order to chart a phenomenological path to an affirmation of an inconsistent whole. We close, then, with the implications for contemporary philosophy.

¿What did Rusell learn from Leibniz?

Por • 26 jun, 2015 • Category: Opinion

Russell’s rejection in 1898 of the doctrine of internal relations — the view that all relations are grounded in the intrinsic properties of the terms related — was a decisive part of his break with Hegelianism and opened the way for his turn to analytic philosophy. Before rejecting it, Russell had given the doctrine little thought, though it played an essential role in the most intractable of the problems facing his attempt to construct a Hegelian dialectic of the sciences. I argue that it was Russell’s early reading of Leibniz, in preparation for his lectures on Leibniz given at Cambridge in 1899, that most probably alerted him to the role the doctrine was playing in his own philosophy. Leibniz defended a similar doctrine and extricated it from difficulties like those faced by Russell by means of devices that were not open to Russell.

Totalidad y negatividad en la Ciencia de la lógica de Hegel

Por • 26 jun, 2015 • Category: Crítica

Uno de los fundamentos más reconocidos para una lectura metafísica de Hegel es el carácter totalitario de un sistema que intenta abarcar todo lo que es, determinando el lugar y papel de cada parte en el todo. Si la verdad es el todo, sólo tendremos acceso a ella al acceder a éste. Este artículo pretende mostrar que el todo en Hegel nunca es accesible por completo al pensamiento; que su característica principal es estar determinado de manera negativa, es decir, por lo que no es. Para ello ofreceré un análisis de los conceptos de infinito y necesidad en la Ciencia de la lógica proporcionando así algunas herramientas conceptuales para una lectura nometafísica de Hegel; es decir, una lectura que enfatiza elementos hermenéuticos y críticos que comúnmente no se asocian con la filosofía de Hegel.

Vida, historia y psicología en Wilhelm Dilthey

Por • 26 jun, 2015 • Category: Educacion

Heidegger ve en Dilthey la figura del primer filósofo que supo dar cuenta de la vida como fenómeno. En este artículo se indaga en la filosofía de la vida diltheyana con el fin de encontrar el lugar que en ella ocupa la historia, la psicología y el mundo social. Si bien el individuo es el eje del análisis diltheyano, no lo es como un ser aislado, sino como un «punto de cruce»; el hombre deviene un ser histórico como fruto de sus múltiples contactos con el mundo socio-cultural al que pertenece. La psicología hablará del hombre y la historia hará lo propio sobre el mundo socio-cultural, ambas, en conjunto, conforman el vasto campo del que tienen que dar cuenta las Geisteswissenschaften (ciencias del espíritu). La vida humana es la que articula ambos polos del análisis, vida que fue olvidada por la filosofía y que la «filosofía de la vida» (Lebensphilosophie) busca rescatar.

¿Cómo exportar desde la Venezuela rentista?

Por • 25 jun, 2015 • Category: Nacionales

Una tasa de cambio competitiva es una condición necesaria más no suficiente para estimular las exportaciones manufactureras.

Mazhar Al-Shereidah: “Desde 2008 se advertía la caída de los precios del petróleo”

Por • 25 jun, 2015 • Category: Nacionales

A partir de 2004 o 2005, el precio comienza a subir de una forma descomunal. Saltó de 25 a 40, de 40 a 50, de 50 a 60. Nadie vio una anomalía ahí, jamás, y lo digo con toda responsabilidad.

Venezuela repudia «campañas antivenezolanas» de Colombia

Por • 25 jun, 2015 • Category: Nacionales

«La República Bolivariana de Venezuela está a la disposición para abordar debidamente las delimitaciones pendientes con la República de Colombia», expresa el comunicado

Universal Laws of Human Society’s Income Distribution

Por • 25 jun, 2015 • Category: Economía

General equilibrium equations in economics play the same role with many-body Newtonian equations in physics. Accordingly, each solution of the general equilibrium equations can be regarded as a possible microstate of the economic system. Since Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem and Rawls’ principle of social fairness will provide a powerful support for the hypothesis of equal probability, then the principle of maximum entropy is available in a just and equilibrium economy so that an income distribution will occur spontaneously (with the largest probability).

Deep Learning Machine Beats Humans in IQ Test

Por • 24 jun, 2015 • Category: sociologia

Just over 100 years ago, the German psychologist William Stern introduced the intelligence quotient test as a way of evaluating human intelligence. Since then, IQ tests have become a standard feature of modern life and are used to determine children’s suitability for schools and adults’ ability to perform jobs. These tests usually contain three categories of questions: logic questions such as patterns in sequences of images, mathematical questions such as finding patterns in sequences of numbers and verbal reasoning questions, which are based around analogies, classifications, as well as synonyms and antonyms. It is this last category that has interested Huazheng Wang and pals at the University of Science and Technology of China and Bin Gao and buddies at Microsoft Research in Beijing. Computers have never been good at these. Pose a verbal reasoning question to a natural language processing machine and its performance will be poor, much worse than the average human ability. Today, that changes thanks to Huazheng and pals who have built a deep learning machine that outperforms the average human ability to answer verbal reasoning questions for the first time.

Levels of uniformity

Por • 24 jun, 2015 • Category: Opinion

We introduce a hierarchy of degree structures between the Medvedev and Muchnik lattices which allow varying amounts of non-uniformity. We use these structures to introduce the notion of the uniformity of a Muchnik reduction, which expresses how uniform a reduction is. We study this notion for several well-known reductions from algorithmic randomness. Furthermore, since our new structures are Brouwer algebras, we study their propositional theories. Finally, we study if our new structures are elementarily equivalent to each other.