Hemeroteca del mes julio, 2017

Opening the black box of energy modelling: strategies and lessons learned

Por • 30 jul, 2017 • Category: Crítica

The global energy system is undergoing a major transition, and in energy planning and decision-making across governments, industry and academia, models play a crucial role. Because of their policy relevance and contested nature, the transparency and open availability of energy models and data are of particular importance. Here we provide a practical how-to guide based on the collective experience of members of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative (Openmod). We discuss key steps to consider when opening code and data, including determining intellectual property ownership, choosing a licence and appropriate modelling languages, distributing code and data, and providing support and building communities. After illustrating these decisions with examples and lessons learned from the community, we conclude that even though individual researchers’ choices are important, institutional changes are still also necessary for more openness and transparency in energy research.

The Limits to Machine Consciousness

Por • 30 jul, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

It is generally accepted that machines can replicate cognitive tasks performed by conscious agents as long as they are not based on the capacity of awareness. We consider several views on the nature of subjective awareness, which is fundamental for self-reflection and review, and present reasons why this property is not computable. We argue that consciousness is more than an epiphenomenon and assuming it to be a separate category is consistent with both quantum mechanics and cognitive science. We speak of two kinds of consciousness, little-C and big-C, and discuss the significance of this classification in analyzing the current academic debates in the field. The interaction between the system and the measuring apparatus of the experimenter is examined both from the perspectives of decoherence and the quantum Zeno effect. These ideas are used as context to address the question of limits to machine consciousness.

China en Europa:Avance estratégico, alianzas, hegemonía y «puentes» hacia América Latina

Por • 28 jul, 2017 • Category: Opinion

La Unión Europea es el mayor socio comercial de China y ésta es el segundo socio mayor de la UE. Se consolida aceleradamente la alianza estratégica que Beijing va tejiendo tanto con las potencias de la UE como con los socios comunitarios menores. Con los efectos todavía vigentes de la crisis económica mundial iniciada en 2007, y tras la decisión británica de abandonar el proyecto comunitario europeo (Brexit), el vínculo entre China y Alemania se torna núcleo de un alineamiento económico y político capaz de competir mundialmente con la declinante potencia norteamericana, y apunta a la posible conformación de un eje euroasiático Beijing-Moscú-Berlín como nuevo polo hegemónico mundial. Paralelamente, dirigencias de los países europeos con antiguo arraigo en América Latina son atraídas por la posibilidad de constituirse en intermediarias y socias activas para el arribo masivo del capital de la ascendente potencia china a la región.

Paradoxes, Self-Referentiality, and Hybrid Systems: A Constructive Approach

Por • 28 jul, 2017 • Category: Educacion

Since the discovery of the paradoxes of self-referentiality or self-reference respectively logicians and mathematicians tried to avoid self-reference when constructing formal systems. Yet “real” complex systems like the mind are characterized by self-reference and can accordingly only be modeled by formal systems that are also basically self-referential. In this article I show that and how self-referential computer programs, understood as algorithmic formal systems, are not only possible but also since some time quite common in special branches of computer science. Examples for this argument are neural networks and so-called hybrid systems, i.e. combination of different sub systems. The hybrid system SOCAIN, a combination of a cellular automaton, a neural network and a genetic algorithm is an example for the fruitfulness of using self-reference in a systematic way. In particular, such systems consist of mutually dependent sub systems, i.e. form no static hierarchy.

Logical Induction

Por • 28 jul, 2017 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

We present a computable algorithm that assigns probabilities to every logical statement in a given formal language, and refines those probabilities over time. For instance, if the language is Peano arithmetic, it assigns probabilities to all arithmetical statements, including claims about the twin prime conjecture, the outputs of long-running computations, and its own probabilities. We show that our algorithm, an instance of what we call a logical inductor, satisfies a number of intuitive desiderata, including: (1) it learns to predict patterns of truth and falsehood in logical statements, often long before having the resources to evaluate the statements, so long as the patterns can be written down in polynomial time; (2) it learns to use appropriate statistical summaries to predict sequences of statements whose truth values appear pseudorandom; and (3) it learns to have accurate beliefs about its own current beliefs, in a manner that avoids the standard paradoxes of self-reference.

The unreasonable power of the lifting property in elementary mathematics

Por • 28 jul, 2017 • Category: Leyes

We illustrate the generative power of the lifting property (orthogonality of morphisms in a category) as means of defining natural elementary mathematical concepts by giving a number of examples in various categories, in particular showing that many standard elementary notions of abstract topology can be defined by applying the lifting property to simple morphisms of finite topological spaces. Examples in topology include the notions of: compact, discrete, connected, and totally disconnected spaces, dense image, induced topology, and separation axioms. Examples in algebra include: finite groups being nilpotent, solvable, torsion-free, p-groups, and prime-to-p groups; injective and projective modules; injective, surjective, and split homomorphisms. We include some speculations on the wider significance of this.

Will Europe belong to Europeans?

Por • 28 jul, 2017 • Category: sociologia

First of all, I’d like to remind everyone that we started a process of collective thinking 27 years ago in Bálványosfürdő, a few kilometres from here. That is where we came to a realisation. Just think back: at that time, at the beginning of the nineties, most people – not only in Hungary, but also across the whole of Central Europe – thought that full assimilation into the Western world was just opening up to us again. The obvious approach was adjustment to that world: to in a way shed our skin and grow a new, fashionable Western skin. From this it followed that in our politics we would simply need to copy what they were doing in the West. Back then – 27 years, 28 years ago – we came together here, and we thought that we freedom fighters living on this side of the Iron Curtain could also have something valuable to say to a Europe which had by then been living in peace, freedom and prosperity for forty years. Back then we weren’t surrounded by television cameras, and our words commanded no attention whatsoever.

Plataforma Ciudadana en Defensa de la Constitución llama a la Abstención y el voto nulo en la Constituyente

Por • 26 jul, 2017 • Category: Nacionales

  25 de Julio de 2017. Los integrantes de la Plataforma Ciudadana en Defensa de la Constitución hicieron público un comunicado rechazando la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente y llamando a la población a la abstención, y al voto nulo para los que vean forzados a participar de la misma. Con la firma de los ex ministros […]

Horizonte y temple de ánimo en la fenomenología de Edmund Husserl

Por • 26 jul, 2017 • Category: Filosofía

Este artículo sugiere una posible sistematización de la noción de temple de ánimo o Stimmung de acuerdo con las investigaciones fenomenológicas de Edmund Husserl. El objetivo de esa sistematización es explicar la constitución del temple de ánimo como experiencia de sentido a través de los diferentes conceptos de horizonte que aparecen a lo largo de los escritos de Husserl. Con el fin de defender la tesis principal el artículo presenta una síntesis de la doctrina de la intencionalidad de horizonte, seguida de un análisis de las características esenciales de la vivencia del temple de ánimo y, posteriormente, una descripción posible de los diferentes niveles de los horizontes implicados en la constitución del mundo circundante, coherentes con la experiencia del temple de ánimo.

Pitman sampling formula and an empirical study of choice behavior

Por • 26 jul, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

This study discusses choice behavior using a voting model in which voters can obtain information from a finite number r of previous voters. Voters vote for a candidate with a probability proportional to the previous vote ratio, which is visible to the voters. We obtain Pitman sampling formula as the equilibrium distribution of r votes. We present the model as a process of making posts on a bulletin board system, 2ch.net, where users can choose one of many threads to create a post. We explore how this choice depends on the last r posts and the distribution of r posts across threads. We conclude that the posting process is described by our voting model for a small r , which might correspond to the time horizon of users’ response.