Hemeroteca del mes agosto, 2017

Sustancia e inherencia en las Categorías de Aristóteles

Por • 23 ago, 2017 • Category: Opinion

Las combinaciones y los tipos de relaciones posibles entre las distintas entidades que acepta la ontología de las Categorías regulan la economía ontológica de la primera metafísica aristotélica, estableciendo vínculos de prioridad y posterioridad entre las sustancias sobre la base de ciertos criterios que Aristóteles se esfuerza por clarificar. Pero el primer esencialismo aristotélico se elabora a medida que el autor de las Categorías fija una distinción entre propiedades esenciales y accidentales a fin de explicar qué es necesariamente una cosa y qué puede o no tener sin que por ello se vea afectada su propia identidad. Este texto pretende reconstruir la relación transversal entre sustancias y accidentes, perfilando la noción de accidente junto a otras de orden semántico. Esta relación, R2, se distingue de la predicación esencial, R1, que tiene lugar verticalmente entre sustancias segundas y primeras.



When does approval voting make the “right choices”?

Por • 23 ago, 2017 • Category: Crítica

We assume that a voter’s judgment about a proposal depends on (i) the proposal’s probability of being right (or good or just) and (ii) the voter’s probability of making a correct judgment about its rightness (or wrongness). Initially, the state of a proposal (right or wrong), and the correctness of a voter’s judgment about it, are assumed to be independent. If the average probability that voters are correct in their judgments is greater than ½, then the proposal with the greatest probability of being right will, in expectation, receive the greatest number of approval votes. This result holds, as well, when the voters’ probabilities of being correct depend on the state of the proposal; when the average probability that voters judge a proposal correctly is functionally related to the probability that it is right, provided that the function satisfies certain conditions; and when all voters follow a leader with an above-average probability of correctly judging proposals. However, it is possible that voters may more frequently select the proposal with the greatest probability of being right by reporting their independent judgments—as assumed by the Condorcet Jury Theorem—rather than by following any leader. Applications of these results to different kinds of voting situations are discussed.



Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem and the distinction between Voting and Deciding

Por • 23 ago, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem in social choice finds different interpretations. Bordes-Tideman (1991) and Tideman (2006) suggest that collective rationality would be an illusion and that practical voting procedures do not tend to require completeness or transitivity. Colignatus (1990 and 2011) makes the distinction between voting and deciding. A voting field arises when pairwise comparisons are made without an overall winner, like in chess or basketball matches. Such (complete) comparisons can form cycles that need not be transitive. When transitivity is imposed then a decision is made who is the best. A cycle or deadlock may turn into indifference, that can be resolved by a tie-breaking rule. Since the objective behind a voting process is to determine a winner, then it is part of the very definition of collective rationality that there is completeness and transitivity, and then the voting field is extended with a decisión.



Communism, Value Neutrality and Monetary Neutrality

Por • 23 ago, 2017 • Category: Educacion

One of the most puzzling aspects about the functioning of the floating exchange rate regime of the 1980s has been that huge swings in exchange rate have had only muted effects on anything real. To understand this phenomenon, we study the relationship between communism and value neutrality and monetary neutrality. We find that the symmetry of communism is bound to lead to value neutrality. In the case of value neutrality, the economic man will certainly accept monetary neutrality. If money is neutral in the long run then even if purchasing power parity (PPP) is not valid in the short-run it will valid over the long run. However, without considering the time factor, communism is a kind of symmetry that is almost impossible to achieve. While considering the time factor, the symmetry of communism can be achieved in theory!



Washington remueve al Kim Jong Un venezolano

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: Nacionales

Heinz Dieterich  14/08/17  1. El American Dream de Maduro Finalmente, las plegarias del madurismo para evocar una amenaza de guerra imperialista, se cumplieron. “Tenemos muchas opciones para Venezuela, incluida una posible opción militar si es necesario”, dijo Trump, proporcionándole a Maduro el salvavidas ideológico que su desastrosa gobernanza anhelaba. Desde hace cuatro años, Cabello y Maduro manipulan al […]



Mejor que un Silicon Valley

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: Política

Si algo podría claramente definir la brecha científica y tecnológica entre los países industrializados y los países de América Latina es la falta de “visión nacionalista” de estos últimos a la hora de abordar los asuntos de la ciencia. Nacionalismo este que no debe entenderse como la pura actuación del Estado por defender su soberanía o su derecho a la autodeterminación. Se trata, más bien, de un nacionalismo que se corresponde con la facultad de un país de poder pensar y avizorar inteligentemente la innovación. Y si algo caracteriza a los países latinoamericanos es su “enamoramiento” por los países industrializados y por el éxito alcanzado por ellos en el campo de la ciencia y la tecnología. No tan bueno resulta su convencimiento de poder transplantar al interno enfoques de innovación exitosos.



Technology networks: the autocatalytic origins of innovation

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: sociologia

We search an autocatalytic structure in networks of technological fields and evaluate its significance for technological change. To this aim we define a technology network based on the International Patents Classification, and we study if autocatalytic structures in the network foster innovation as measured by the rate of production of patents. The network is identified through patenting activity of geographical regions in different technology fields. Through our analysis we show how the technological landscape of the patents database evolves as a self-organising autocatalytic structure that grows in size, and arrives to cover the most part of the technology network. Technology classes in the core of the autocatalytic structure perform better in terms of their innovativeness, as measured by the rate of growth of the number of patents. Finally, the links between classes that define the autocatalytic structure of the technology network break the hierarchical structure of the database, and indicate that recombinant innovation and its autocatalytic patterns are an important stylised fact of technological change.



Oil economy phase plot: a physical analogy

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

A phase plot of the oil economy is built using the literature data of world oil production, price, and EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested). An analogy between the oil economy and the Benard convection is proposed; some methods of interpretation and forecast of the system behavior are also shown based on “phase portrait” using as main variables the price, production and EROEI values. A scenery is proposed on this basis.



The search for superheavy elements: Historical and philosophical perspectives

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The heaviest of the transuranic elements known as superheavy elements (SHE) are produced in nuclear reactions in a few specialized laboratories located in Germany, the U.S., Russia, and Japan. The history of this branch of physical science provides several case studies of interest to the philosophy and sociology of modern science. The story of SHE illuminates the crucial notion of what constitutes a chemical element, what the criteria are for discovering a new element, and how an element is assigned a name. The story also cast light on the sometimes uneasy relationship between physics and chemistry. It is far from obvious that elements with Z > 110 exist in the same sense as oxygen or sodium exists. The answers are not given by nature but by international commissions responsible for the criteria and evaluation of discovery claims. The works of these commissions and of SHE research in general have often been controversial.



Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1917–2017

Por • 17 ago, 2017 • Category: sociologia

The Russian Revolution of 1917 erupted on the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Karl Marx’s Capital. From the start, the October Revolution seemed both to confirm and contradict Marx’s analysis. He had envisioned a working-class-based socialist revolution breaking out in the developed capitalist countries of Western Europe. But the 1882 preface to the Communist Manifesto, written a year before his death, amended this by pointing to a revolution in Russia as a possible “signal for proletarian revolution in the West.”1 Yet although a worker-peasant revolution under Marxist leadership triumphed in Russia in 1917, Russia was still a largely underdeveloped country, and the revolutionary uprisings in Germany and Central Europe which followed were weak and easily extinguished.