Hemeroteca del mes septiembre, 2017

What Kind of Space is Cyberspace?

Por • 27 sep, 2017 • Category: Educacion

With the advent and growth of electronic communication, the word “cyberspace” has entered into everyday parlance. But what does this word signify? I begin by sketching an equivalence between physical space and cyberspace, showing that they share the concepts of place, distance, size and route in common. With this mutual framework in place, I go on to examine various theories—substantival, relational, Einsteinian and Kantian—concerning the nature of physical space. We see that, while cyberspace shares some of the properties of physical space isolated by each of these theories, still it cannot be subsumed under any one theory. We also see that cyberspace exhibits several novel properties, projecting it far beyond the scope of any existing theory and setting it apart as an exciting new spatial medium.



Oswald Spengler, el hombre que veía más lejos

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Crítica

Toda buena familia que se precie cuenta, al menos, con un pariente maldito: ese tío, primo o hermano cuya existencia se prefiere pasar por alto, y al que todos se refieren de tapadillo, como si su sola mención bastase para conjurar una presencia intempestiva. Entre la familia de los pensadores del siglo XX, pocos miembros tan intempestivos ha habido como Oswald Spengler. Y no será por falta de éxito, o por la escasa repercusión de su obra. En los años posteriores a la primera guerra mundial su obra principal – La decadencia de Occidente – vendió miles de ejemplares y encendió considerables polémicas, catapultándole a la fama como autor de uno de los mayores best seller filosóficos de todos los tiempos. Pero el éxito no implica la aquiescencia: Spengler concitó en sus obras la enemistad de casi todas las corrientes ideológicas de la época: liberales, cristianos, socialdemócratas, nazis y bolcheviques. No está nada mal



Decision-Making under Radical Uncertainty: An Interpretation of Keynes’ Treatise

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Economía

Keynes’ mathematical Treatise addresses what some call ‘radical uncertainty’, which he thought endemic in world affairs and whose appreciation underpinned much of his later work. In contrast, the mainstream view in economics, as elsewhere, has been that even if radical uncertainty exists, either there is in principle nothing that can ever be done about it, or that even if one could in theory do something about it then the institutions required would be unreliable, and one would be better off without them. Thus the mainstream has worked as if it were realistic to ignore even the possibility of radical uncertainty. But one needs some conceptualisation of radical uncertainty, such as Keynes’, before one can make such judgments. This paper presents an interpretation, to inform debate. The viewpoint taken here is mathematical, but this is not to deny the value of other views.



Philosophy of Probability Foundations, Epistemology, and Computation

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Filosofía

The topics discussed in this dissertation are all related to the philosophy of probability: we discuss the foundations of probability theory—a special topic in the philosophy of mathematics—and the epistemology of probabilistic information. Whereas epistemology traditionally deals with beliefs of only a single agent, we will also apply probability theory to describe the beliefs of groups of interacting agents (social epistemology). Section 1.1 gives the rationale for this dissertation and makes its structure explicit. In section 1.2, we will define the branches of philosophy to which this dissertation belongs: formal philosophy and computational philosophy. In section 1.3, we give an overview of the foundations of probability and randomness. This section also describes the author’s position on the interpretation of probability, which is an epistemic one. Section 1.4 gives an overview of the mathematics and philosophy of the concept of infinity.



El concepto de Probabilidad en la obra de Lord Keynes

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Leyes

La interpretación logicista propuesta por Keynes condujo a un modelo en el que la probabilidad se traduce en un grado de creencia racional concebido como una relación entre un cuerpo de conocimiento y una proposición o conjunto de proposiciones. Un análisis detenido del “Treatise on probability” permite concluir: i) que el modelo Keynesiano no sólo es una consecuencia, sino que constituye una extensión de los “Principia mathematica” y los “Problems of philosophy” en la que la aproximación al concepto de probabilidad es perfectamente asimilable a la aproximación de Russell y Whitehead a la matemática y ii) que, más allá de la naturaleza innegablemente metafísica, la representación numérica de la probabilidad logicista comprende un número muy restringido de casos, debido a la calidad de heurístico del principio de indiferencia.



Proposal for the debate on the role of the DPRK in the current hegemonic battle

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

The detail that we must point out as an emerging point to fix the thesis defended in this call, is given by some outcomes that we will try to qualify. The Russia-China entente, aligned in the BRICS financial transnational bloc, distributes the physical frontier with the DPRK. In the latest blockade movement made by the UN assembly, it may seem that the positions of Russia and China have weakened the role of the DPRK, when in reality what has happened is a movement that strengthens the positions of the BRICS, and consequently of the Russian-Chinese core. From here we state that all this is due to the subjective resistances held by the the region north of the 38th parallel, a population of barely twenty-five million people. The turn made by Russia and China presents a certainly significant reading for the international diplomatic movement, as a definitive blow to the threat of war proposed by the bloc represented by USA-Japan-South Korea.



Russian New Generation Warfare Handbook

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Internacionales

This handbook attempts to examine the tactics used by Russia in Ukraine as the military component of their New Generation Warfare doctrine. We will attempt to describe their capabilities and applications of combat power. Finally, this handbook will present recommendations for U.S. Battalions and Brigade Combat Teams to counter these Russian methods of war. The war in Ukraine is still ongoing. The Russian Forces are still involved in Syria and continue to improve from their successes and shortfalls. We, as American Soldiers, must do the same. As the saying goes, “Only fools learn from their mistakes. The wise man learns from the mistakes of others.”



Respuesta a Rafael Ramírez

Por • 23 sep, 2017 • Category: Nacionales

Einstein Millán Arcia  22/09/2017. El ex presidente de PDVSA y ex ministro de Petróleo y Minería Rafael Ramírez desde Nueva York, escribe recientemente un artículo por Aporre.org (https://www.aporrea.org/energia/a252423.html), en donde destaca el siguiente párrafo: “Lo que ha pasado en PDVSA debe llamarnos a una profunda discusión. Siempre se habló de que nuestra empresa y nuestra […]



Compressibility, laws of nature, initial conditions and complexity

Por • 23 sep, 2017 • Category: Opinion

We critically analyse the point of view for which laws of nature are just a mean to compress data. Discussing some basic notions of dynamical systems and information theory, we show that the idea that the analysis of large amount of data by means of an algorithm of compression is equivalent to the knowledge one can have from scientific laws, is rather naive. In particular we discuss the subtle conceptual topic of the initial conditions of phenomena which are generally incompressible. Starting from this point, we argue that laws of nature represent more than a pure compression of data, and that the availability of large amount of data, in general, is not particularly useful to understand the behaviour of complex phenomena.



Would Two Dimensions be World Enough for Spacetime?

Por • 23 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

We consider various curious features of general relativity, and relativistic field theory, in two spacetime dimensions. In particular, we discuss: the vanishing of the Einstein tensor; the failure of an initial-value formulation for vacuum spacetimes; the status of singularity theorems; the non-existence of a Newtonian limit; the status of the cosmological constant; and the character of matter fields, including perfect fluids and electromagnetic fields. We conclude with a discussion of what constrains our understanding of physics in different dimensions.