Hemeroteca del mes noviembre, 2017

Necessity or Contingency. The Master Argument

Por • 30 nov, 2017 • Category: Leyes

The Master Argument, recorded by Epictetus, indicates that Diodorus had deduced a contradiction from the conjoint assertion of three propositions. Epictetus adds that three solutions of the aporia had been obtained by denying one or another of the propositions advanced while maintaining the other two. The argument, which has to do with necessity and contingency and therefore with freedom, has attracted the attention of logicians above all. In any case there have been many attempts at reconstructing it in logical terms, without excessive worry about historical plausibility and with the foregone conclusion that it was sophistic since it directly imperiled our common sense notion of freedom. On both of these counts I have taken exception to recent tradition. The success of the argument with the Ancients, and with Ancients who were no mean logicians, seemed reason for presuming that the Master Argument is not sophistic and that the contradiction it produces is a real one. On the other side, I looked for a classical text containing the propositions stated by Epictetus and which could have furnished Diodorus with the material for his argument. I believe to have found such a text in Aristotle’s De Caelo. In order to demonstrate the contradiction in the propositions thus restored, I had in my turn to translate them into logical terms. It is unlikely that Diodorus proceeded in such a way.



Los “mensajeros” se delatan: Adán Ch.

Por • 30 nov, 2017 • Category: Nacionales

Marcos Luna  No hay mayor acto de corrupción en estos últimos cuatro años que la falsificación del Plan de la Patria de Chávez. El Plan de la Paria de Chávez fue y puede ser todavía un plan de acción política y un programa para un período presidencial vistas al punto de no retorno de la […]



Pdvsa; unas pocas semanas para Nelson

Por • 30 nov, 2017 • Category: Nacionales

Einstein Millán Arcia  29/11/17.  Solo unas pocas semanas le dieron a Nelson Martínez al frente de PDVSA, hombre de dilatada trayectoria dentro de la industria petrolera, para arreglar los entuertos que ha dejado a su paso Eulogio y Rafael junto a su clan destructivo desde 2005-2006. Más de 1.300.000 B/D de caída neta de producción […]



On the mathematical and foundational significance of the uncountable

Por • 29 nov, 2017 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

For various historical, practical, and foundational reasons, large parts of mathematics are studied indirectly via countable approximations, also called codes. It is a natural question whether this indirect study of codes is faithful to the original development in mathematics, or whether approximations somehow distort the latter. Another natural question is which parts of basic mathematics can(not) be studied via these representations. In this paper, we formulate new answers to these old questions. Our answers stem both from mathematics itself (via the study of the gauge integral) and its foundations (via Hilbert-Bernays’ Grundlagen der Mathematik and its spiritual successor Reverse Mathematics). We identify a number of basic theorems from (uncountable) mathematics for which the logical and computational properties are completely (and even maximally) distorted upon introducing countable approximations. In a nutshell, while countable approximations are interesting and important, even extremely basic ‘uncountable’ mathematics is infinitely more complicated than the ‘countable picture’ involving codes suggests.



Raíces metafísicas de la Lógica de Hegel

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

Entre las obras de Hegel, la Ciencia de la Lógica (Wissenschaft der Logik) suele ser considerada hoy en día como la más hermética. Ignorada por los lógicos, menospreciada por los científicos y desoída por los pocos metafísicos que quedan, la obra sistemática central de Hegel, justamente aquella de la que él decía sin modestia alguna que “contenía la representación de Dios en la eternidad de su ser, antes de la creación de la naturaleza” 1 , duerme el poco envidiable sueño de los justos. El título mismo, que une en alianza extraña a la ”ciencia” y a la “lógica”, parece contrastar notoriamente con la historia de ambas disciplinas, antes y después de Hegel, de modo que ninguna de ellas tendría por qué reconocerle autoridad alguna. La empresa resulta más desconcertante aún, si se tiene en cuenta que, al combinar de esa extraña manera la ciencia y la lógica, lo que Hegel pretendía era recuperar y rcformular la tradición de la metafísica.



Totalidad y negatividad en la Ciencia de la lógica de Hegel

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Filosofía

Uno de los fundamentos más reconocidos para una lectura metafísica de Hegel es el carácter totalitario de un sistema que intenta abarcar todo lo que es, determinando el lugar y papel de cada parte en el todo. Si la verdad es el todo, sólo tendremos acceso a ella al acceder a éste. Este artículo pretende mostrar que el todo en Hegel nunca es accesible por completo al pensamiento; que su característica principal es estar determinado de manera negativa, es decir, por lo que no es. Para ello ofreceré un análisis de los conceptos de infinito y necesidad en laCiencia de la lógica, proporcionando así algunas herramientas conceptuales para una lectura no–metafísica de Hegel; es decir, una lectura que enfatiza elementos hermenéuticos y críticos que comúnmente no se asocian con la filosofía de Hegel.



La lógica de Hegel y la totalidad emergente

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Crítica

Este artículo expone la categoría de totalidad en la Ciencia de la Lógica de Hegel. Su estrategia discursiva consiste en exponer la clave de bóveda del idealismo hegeliano: la identidad entre el ser y el pensar que, a diferencia de San Anselmo es una construcción histórico-cultural cuyo protagonista es el sujeto.



China’s Evolving Approach to Nuclear War-Fighting

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Internacionales

For decades, minimal deterrence, de-mated nuclear warheads, and a no-first-use pledge have formed the bedrock of China’s nuclear posture. China’s conventional deterrence posture, in contrast, has been characterized by war-fighting, pre-emption, asymmetry, and the development of offensively configured conventional capabilities. Recent evidence indicates that these postures are far more integrated, flexible, and dynamic than Beijing’s official rhetoric suggests, and that during the past decade a de facto shift toward a limited nuclear war-fighting (or the use of nuclear weapons for victory denial purposes at all stages of warfare) posture has already taken place.



China’s North Korea Debate: Redrawing the Red Line

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Política

In China, the North Korean issue is a sensitive topic. However, as tensions rise on the Korean peninsula, the space for Chinese experts to express their opinion critical towards Pyongyang has gradually widened, suggesting a shift of thinking on North Korea within the Chinese government. A speech by the prominent historian Shen Zhihua at Dalian University in March this year drew much attention in Western media for criticizing the Chinese government policy toward North Korea and calling China’s long-standing ally a “latent enemy.” Remarkably, the speech has not been censored and still can be accessed on the website of the East China Normal University.



A New Interpretation of the Economic Complexity Index

Por • 28 nov, 2017 • Category: Economía

The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009) has been successful in explaining differences in GDP/capita and economic growth across countries. There has been confusion, however, about what it means and why it works. The ECI was originally motivated as an enhancement of diversity which is defined as the number of products a country is competitive in. However, the ECI is orthogonal to diversity. Nor is the ECI an eigenvalue centrality measure – in fact, the standard eigenvalue centrality measure applied to the export similarity matrix is equivalent to diversity. Instead we show that the ECI can be understood in terms of spectral clustering. It corresponds to an approximate solution to the problem of partitioning a graph into two parts in order to minimize the connections between the parts. It can also be viewed as an optimal one-dimensional ordering that clusters countries with similar exports together and minimizes the distance between countries. We present two empirical examples that involve regional employment in occupations and industries rather than exports, in which diversity fails to be a distinguishing feature of the data. These particular regional settings illustrate how the ECI can be useful even when diversity is not.