Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Ambiente’

Demostración y silogismo en los Analíticos segundos. Reconstrucción y discusión

Por • 5 oct, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

En este artículo se discute la relación entre silogismo y demostración con respecto al concepto aristotélico del conocimiento científico formulado en los Analíticos segundos. La argumentación sigue tres líneas principales: (i) se ofrecen razones para rechazar la relegación de la sistematización silogística a la instancia postrera de justificación y exposición didáctica del conocimiento previamente adquirido. Como respuesta alternativa, (ii) se muestra que una explicación aristotélica necesita la silogística en virtud del papel que desempeña la causa como término medio silogístico. En consecuencia, debería estar en condiciones de (iii) sostener que no resulta factible establecer firmemente los principios propios como premisas explicativas sin construir silogismos.



Remembering Martin Heidegger: September 26, 1889–May 26, 1976

Por • 30 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

Martin Heidegger is one of the giants of twentieth-century philosophy, both in terms of the depth and originality of his ideas and the breadth of his influence in philosophy, theology, the human sciences, and culture in general. Heidegger was born on September 26, 1889, in the town of Meßkirch in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. He died on May 26, 1976 in Freiburg and was buried in Meßkirch. Heidegger was from a lower-class Catholic family. His family was too poor to send him to university, so he enrolled in a Jesuit seminary. But Heidegger was soon rejected by the Jesuits due to a heart condition. He then studied theology at the University of Freiburg from 1909–1911, after which time he switched his focus to philosophy. Eventually Heidegger broke entirely with Christianity. From 1919 to 1923, Heidegger was the salaried research assistant of Edmund Husserl at the University of Freiburg. Husserl, who was a Jewish convert to Lutheranism, was the founder of the phenomenological movement in German philosophy, and Heidegger was to become his most illustrious student. In 1927, Heidegger published his magnum opus, Being and Time, the foundation of his world-wide fame. In 1928, Husserl retired from the University of Freiburg, and Heidegger returned to replace him, remaining in Freiburg for the rest of his academic career.



Proposal for the debate on the role of the DPRK in the current hegemonic battle

Por • 26 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

The detail that we must point out as an emerging point to fix the thesis defended in this call, is given by some outcomes that we will try to qualify. The Russia-China entente, aligned in the BRICS financial transnational bloc, distributes the physical frontier with the DPRK. In the latest blockade movement made by the UN assembly, it may seem that the positions of Russia and China have weakened the role of the DPRK, when in reality what has happened is a movement that strengthens the positions of the BRICS, and consequently of the Russian-Chinese core. From here we state that all this is due to the subjective resistances held by the the region north of the 38th parallel, a population of barely twenty-five million people. The turn made by Russia and China presents a certainly significant reading for the international diplomatic movement, as a definitive blow to the threat of war proposed by the bloc represented by USA-Japan-South Korea.



Would Two Dimensions be World Enough for Spacetime?

Por • 23 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

We consider various curious features of general relativity, and relativistic field theory, in two spacetime dimensions. In particular, we discuss: the vanishing of the Einstein tensor; the failure of an initial-value formulation for vacuum spacetimes; the status of singularity theorems; the non-existence of a Newtonian limit; the status of the cosmological constant; and the character of matter fields, including perfect fluids and electromagnetic fields. We conclude with a discussion of what constrains our understanding of physics in different dimensions.



Por qué el diseño de las ciudades de Latinoamérica frena su progreso

Por • 17 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

Una investigación realizada por el Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina (CAF) detectó las tres razones fundamentales en las que la planificación urbanística es un obstáculo para el avance de la región. Estas son: hacinamiento en la vivienda en barrios vulnerables, el transporte público y el trabajo informal. Los expertos hablan de la “triple informalidad” de la casa, el bus y el trabajo. Hoy 80% de los latinoamericanos vive en ciudades y se estima que en 2050 será 90%. Ante ese escenario, ¿quién se hace cargo de diseñar ciudades habitables? Pablo Sanguinetti, economista jefe de CAF y uno de los expertos que participó en la elaboración del último Reporte de Economía y Desarrollo, dijo que los gobernantes -a nivel nacional y regional- tienen que tomar cartas en el asunto porque la situación se puede poner cada vez peor.



A Philosopher’s Guide to Probability

Por • 8 sep, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

“What is probability?” There are two ways to understand this question, and thus two kinds of answer that could be given. Firstly, the question may be understood as: how should probability theory be formalized? This is a mathematical question, to which Kolmogorov‘s axiomatization is the orthodox answer. I briefly review his theory. Secondly, the question may be understood as: what do statements of probability mean? This is a philosophical question, and while the mathematical theory of probability certainly bears on it, the answer or answers must come from elsewhere. After a brief autobiographical prelude and historical introduction, I survey at some length the leading ‘interpretations’ of probability: classical, logical, frequentist, propensity, and subjectivist. I conclude with some of my best bets for future avenues of research in the philosophical foundations of probability



El argumento de lo uno sobre muchos del peri ideōn

Por • 24 ago, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

En Metafísica A.9 Aristóteles clasifica como “menos rigurosos” a tres de los argumentos platónicos a favor de las Ideas examinados en su tratado Sobre las Ideas (Peri ideōn). La interpretación estándar del Peri ideōn sostiene que estos argumentos son menos rigurosos porque sólo son válidos para postular universales aristotélicos, pero no para postular Ideas. En este trabajo me propongo poner en cuestión esta interpretación con respecto a uno de estos argumentos: el argumento de lo uno sobre muchos. Sostengo que este argumento, si bien no es válido para postular Ideas, tampoco lo es para postular universales aristotélicos. Éste es válido sólo para afirmar una conclusión neutral entre platonismo y aristotelismo sobre universales: que hay entidades distintas de las cosas particulares.



Oil economy phase plot: a physical analogy

Por • 20 ago, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

A phase plot of the oil economy is built using the literature data of world oil production, price, and EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested). An analogy between the oil economy and the Benard convection is proposed; some methods of interpretation and forecast of the system behavior are also shown based on “phase portrait” using as main variables the price, production and EROEI values. A scenery is proposed on this basis.



Fundamental Materials Research and the Course of Human Civilization

Por • 12 ago, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

Unless we change direction, we are likely to wind up where we are headed. (Ancient Chinese proverb)



The Limits to Machine Consciousness

Por • 30 jul, 2017 • Category: Ambiente

It is generally accepted that machines can replicate cognitive tasks performed by conscious agents as long as they are not based on the capacity of awareness. We consider several views on the nature of subjective awareness, which is fundamental for self-reflection and review, and present reasons why this property is not computable. We argue that consciousness is more than an epiphenomenon and assuming it to be a separate category is consistent with both quantum mechanics and cognitive science. We speak of two kinds of consciousness, little-C and big-C, and discuss the significance of this classification in analyzing the current academic debates in the field. The interaction between the system and the measuring apparatus of the experimenter is examined both from the perspectives of decoherence and the quantum Zeno effect. These ideas are used as context to address the question of limits to machine consciousness.