Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Ciencia y tecnología’

Geopolítica, ciencia y tecnología en las sociedades con instituciones políticas y mercados no inclusivos

Por • 17 sep, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

El propósito que gobierna este escrito, de carácter reflexivo, se centra en ubicar la concepción moderna del concepto de desarrollo en un contexto de geopolítica y, a partir de allí, con la ciencia, la tecnología y la técnica, en una clara referencia conceptual en su carácter instrumental a herramienta geopolítica, referir la existencia de sociedades con instituciones políticas y mercados no inclusivos (o extractivos), que explican la formulación de categorías de países y la existencia de desigualdades.



Convergencia de experimento y teoría en los procesos de invención e innovación

Por • 13 sep, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

La relación entre teoría y experimento ha estado siempre presente en la filosofía de la ciencia, especialmente en el debate entre tradiciones teóricas y experimentales. La cuestión está en el papel de la teoría y el experimento en la investigación científica y en el predominio de una tradición sobre otra. Históricamente, tanto para filósofos como historiadores de la ciencia ha predominado la idea de que la experimentación es subsidiaria de la teoría, pero hace ya unas décadas que esta concepción se ha puesto en cuestión. Por lo que respecta a las categorías de invención y de innovación históricamente se las ha asociado a la tecnología y a las ciencias aplicadas. Sin embargo, actualmente dichas categorías engloban la idea de cambio en cualquiera de los ámbitos, desde los científicos a los culturales y desde la tecnología a las formas de vida cotidiana, siendo también un referente para cambios metodológicos y epistemológicos.



From Intuitionism to Many-Valued Logics through Kripke Models

Por • 8 sep, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Intuitionistic Propositional Logic is proved to be an infinitely many valued logic by Kurt Gödel (1932), and it is proved by Stanisław Jaśkowski (1936) to be a countably many valued logic. In this paper, we provide alternative proofs for these theorems by using models of Saul Kripke (1959). Gödel’s proof gave rise to an intermediate propositional logic (between intuitionistic and classical), that is known nowadays as Gödel or the Gödel-Dummet Logic, and is studied by fuzzy logicians as well. We also provide some results on the inter-definablility of propositional connectives in this logic.



Foundations of quantum physics and wave mechanics

Por • 1 sep, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The Copenhagen interpretation has been the subject of much criticism, notably by De Broglie and Einstein, because it contradicts the principles of causality and realism. The aim of this essay is to study the wave mechanics as an alternative to traditional quantum mechanics, in the continuity of the ideas of Louis de Broglie: the pilot wave theory of De Broglie (where each particle is associated with a wave which guides it), De Broglie-Bohm theory, stochastic electrodynamics (where the stochastic character of particles is caused by the energy field of the fluctuating vacuum), and the analogies between quantum mechanics and hydrodynamics.



Bits and Pieces: Understanding Information Decomposition from Part-whole Relationships and Formal Logic

Por • 28 ago, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Partial information decomposition (PID) seeks to decompose the multivariate mutual information that a set of source variables contains about a target variable into basic pieces, the so called «atoms of information». Each atom describes a distinct way in which the sources may contain information about the target. In this paper we show, first, that the entire theory of partial information decomposition can be derived from considerations of elementary parthood relationships between information contributions. This way of approaching the problem has the advantage of directly characterizing the atoms of information, instead of taking an indirect approach via the concept of redundancy. Secondly, we describe several intriguing links between PID and formal logic.



Mathematical works of Vladimir A. Uspensky: A commentary

Por • 20 ago, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Vladimir Andreevich Uspensky [1930-2018] was one of the Soviet pioneers of the theory of computation and mathematical logic in general (and my teacher and thesis advisor). This paper is the survey of his mathematical works and their influence. (His achievements in linguistics and his organizational role are outside the scope of this survey.) The Russian version follows the English one



Kolmogorov’s legacy: Algorithmic Theory of Informatics and Kolmogorov Programmable Technology

Por • 13 ago, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

In this survey, we explore Andrei Nikolayevich Kolmogorov’s seminal work in just one of his many facets: its influence Computer Science especially his viewpoint of what herein we call ‘Algorithmic Theory of Informatics.’ Can a computer file ‘reduce’ its ‘size’ if we add to it new symbols? Do equations of state like second Newton law in Physics exist in Computer Science? Can Leibniz’ principle of identification by indistinguishability be formalized? In the computer, there are no coordinates, no distances, and no dimensions; most of traditional mathematical approaches do not work. The computer processes finite binary sequences i.e. the sequences of 0 and 1. A natural question arises: Should we continue today, as we have done for many years, to approach Computer Science problems by using classical mathematical apparatus such as ‘mathematical modeling’?



Tecnicidad, Biopolítica y Decadencia. Comentarios al libro «El Hombre y la Técnica» de Oswald Spengler

Por • 7 ago, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

El presente artículo es un comentario detenido de la pequeña obra de Oswald Spengler «El Hombre y la Técnica». En él desarrollamos el concepto de tecnicidad, necesario para comprender la amplia perspectiva (zoológica, naturalista, dialéctica, operatiológica) esbozada por el filósofo alemán. No se trata de un ensayo sobre la Técnica en el sentido artefactual y objetivo sino sobre el desarrollo de las capacidades operatorias (viso-quirúrgicas) de los ancestros del hombre, que lo llevaron desde la depredación hasta la Cultura, y desde la Cultura hasta la decadencia. Especialmente la decadencia de los pueblos occidentales que más han contribuido al despegue de esa tecnicidad.



China’s “New” Academy of Military Science: A Revolution in Theoretical Affairs?

Por • 2 ago, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

One of the overlooked but consequential features of China’s current period of military reform has been an overhaul of the research and doctrinal development system within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). One key change has been a realignment of research institutes within the Academy of Military Science (AMS), which has emphasized blending AMS’s traditional focus on doctrine writing with new capabilities being developed by the science and technology (S&T) community. Whether or not a new generation of PLA doctrine will be able to leverage advances in artificial intelligence, robotics, and other high-tech fields will be a key test of the success of the new system.



Polarization in networks

Por • 23 jul, 2020 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

We introduce a model of polarization in networks as a unifying framework for the measurement of polarization that covers a wide range of applications. We consider a sufficiently general setup for this purpose: node- and edge-weighted, undirected, and connected networks. We generalize the axiomatic characterization of Esteban and Ray (1994) and show that only a particular instance within this class can be used justifiably to measure polarization of networks.