Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Economía’

China’s First Workforce Skill Taxonomy

Por • 16 ene, 2020 • Category: Economía

China is the world’s second largest economy. After four decades of economic miracles, China’s economy is transitioning into an advanced, knowledge-based economy. Yet, we still lack a detailed understanding of the skills that underly the Chinese labor force, and the development and spatial distribution of these skills. For example, the US standardized skill taxonomy O*NET played an important role in understanding the dynamics of manufacturing and knowledge-based work, as well as potential risks from automation and outsourcing. Here, we use Machine Learning techniques to bridge this gap, creating China’s first workforce skill taxonomy, and map it to O*NET.



Mathematical Psychics and Hydraulics: The Methodological Influence of Edgeworth and Fisher

Por • 10 ene, 2020 • Category: Economía

The scientific methodology of classical physics has been a constant influence in the development of orthodox economics. Clear signs of this can be found in the works of many classical economists such as Smith, Say, Cairnes and Mill. The physics influence became more apparent with the emergence of marginalism. The economic thought of F. Y. Edgeworth, however, is the peak of the influence of classical physics to economics. In Edgeworth’s Mathematical Psychics, the identification of maximum energy in physics with that of the maximum pleasure in economic calculus, is central in his thought. In the same manner, I. Fisher, the founder of marginalism in the US, promoted a classical physics based economic methodology. The close analogy of physics and economics concepts and the application of tools from hydrodynamics to economic theory, are basic characteristics of his work.



A Meta-theoretical Assessment of the Decline of Scholastic Economics

Por • 4 ene, 2020 • Category: Economía

The aim of this paper is to offer certain insights into the process of declining of scholastic economics in late medieval and early modern European intellectual circles. In this attempt, the paper adopts the metatheoretical framework of Laudan’s philosophy of science and introduces the concept of scientific research tradition in pre-classical economic thought. It then considers the features of scholastic research tradition, specifies its empirical and conceptual problems and indicates a general scenario of assessing its performance over time. Of primary importance, in this respect, becomes the issue of evaluating the external and internal factors of disintegrating of the scholastic tradition, whose constraints reflect its incorporation into a broader ethical analysis and necessitate its transformation into a more secular approach to economic phenomena.



How connected is too connected? Impact of network topology on systemic risk and collapse of complex economic systems

Por • 29 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

Economic interdependencies have become increasingly present in globalized production, financial and trade systems. While establishing interdependencies among economic agents is crucial for the production of complex products, they may also increase systemic risks due to failure propagation. It is crucial to identify how network connectivity impacts both the emergent production and risk of collapse of economic systems. In this paper we propose a model to study the effects of network structure on the behavior of economic systems by varying the density and centralization of connections among agents. The complexity of production increases with connectivity given the combinatorial explosion of parts and products. Emergent systemic risks arise when interconnections increase vulnerabilities.



Debreu’s apologies for mathematical economics after 1983

Por • 21 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

When reassessing the role of Debreu’s axiomatic method in economics, one has to explain both its success and unpopularity; one has to explain the “bright shadow” Debreu cast on the discipline: sheltering, threatening, and difficult to pin down. Debreu himself did not expect to have such an influence. Before he received the Bank of Sweden Prize in 1983 he had never openly engaged with the methodology or politics of mathematical economics. When in several speeches he later rigorously distinguished mathematical form from economic content and claimed this as the virtue of mathematical economics, he did both: he defended mathematical reasoning against the theoretical innovations since the 1970s and expressed remorse for having promised too much because it cannot support claims about economic content.



Manuel Sutherland: ¿Una dolarización «antiimperialista»?

Por • 18 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

La depreciación del bolívar con respecto al dólar compete al gobierno central, que con mano de hierro dirige el BCV. El desastroso resultado de los indicadores no puede ser achacado a las sanciones de Trump ni al «bloqueo». Países como Cuba, Corea del Norte o Irán, fuertemente sancionados, no tienen ni 1% de la inflación que tiene Venezuela. Así la responsabilidad por el caos monetario es enteramente interna. Aun así, podría haber alternativas a la debacle. Urge un programa de emergencia económica alejado de los intereses inmediatos de los bandos en pugna. Sindicatos, ONG, universidades y algunos partidos podrían trabajar en un plan que ordene y coloque en el centro a los trabajadores y las trabajadoras venezolanos y sus condiciones de vida, para luego impulsar un plan alternativo de mayor envergadura que reordene la vida económica y social del país.



EU Economic Modelling System

Por • 17 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

This is the first study that attempts to assess the regional economic impacts of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) investments in a spatially explicit macroeconomic model, which allows us to take into account all key direct, indirect and spatial spillover effects of EIT investments via inter-regional trade and investment linkages and a spatial diffusion of technology via an endogenously determined global knowledge frontier with endogenous growth engines driven by investments in knowledge and human capital. Our simulation results of highly detailed EIT expenditure data suggest that, besides sizable direct effects in those regions that receive the EIT investment support, there are also significant spatial spillover effects to other (non-supported) EU regions.



Análisis: ¿Quién está pagando el ajuste económico de Nicolás Maduro?

Por • 13 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

Por ajuste económico suele entenderse el paquete de medidas que un gobierno toma para corregir los desequilibrios macroeconómicos que tienden a agravar los problemas de contracción económica, fuga de capitales, desinversión, escasez, inflación y empobrecimiento de la población. En Venezuela, a pesar del descalabro del ingreso fiscal de origen petrolero y del desplome de la recaudación de impuesto sobre la renta (Islr) e impuesto al valor agregado (IVA) como consecuencia de la prolongada recesión de la economía, se ha mantenido la inercia de un gasto público populista que ahora es financiado con desmesuradas emisiones de dinero, cuestión que se ha convertido en el principal factor propagador de la inflación.



Heuristic Strategies in Uncertain Approval Voting Environments

Por • 9 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

In many collective decision making situations, agents vote to choose an alternative that best represents the preferences of the group. Agents may manipulate the vote to achieve a better outcome by voting in a way that does not reflect their true preferences. In real world voting scenarios, people often do not have complete information about other voter preferences and it can be computationally complex to identify a strategy that will maximize their expected utility. In such situations, it is often assumed that voters will vote truthfully rather than expending the effort to strategize. However, being truthful is just one possible heuristic that may be used. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of heuristics in single winner and multi-winner approval voting scenarios with missing votes.



Proportionality and the Limits of Welfarism

Por • 2 dic, 2019 • Category: Economía

We study two influential voting rules proposed in the 1890s by Phragmén and Thiele, which elect a committee or parliament of k candidates which proportionally represents the voters. Voters provide their preferences by approving an arbitrary number of candidates. Previous work has proposed proportionality axioms satisfied by Thiele’s rule (now known as Proportional Approval Voting, PAV) but not by Phragmén’s rule. By proposing two new proportionality axioms (laminar proportionality and priceability) satisfied by Phragmén but not Thiele, we show that the two rules achieve two distinct forms of proportional representation. Phragmén’s rule ensures that all voters have a similar amount of influence on the committee, and Thiele’s rule ensures a fair utility distribution.