Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Educacion’

On J M Keynes’s Rejection of the Moscow School of Probability’s Limiting Frequency Approach to Probability and Kolmogorov’s Axiom of Additivity (Countable Additivity ):

Por • 23 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

J M Keynes was an acknowledged, world renown, and internationally recognized expert in probability and statistics in the 1930’s based on his A Treatise on Probability (1921). . Keynes had been selected by statistics journals to serve as a referee during the 1930’s. It is, therefore, no surprise that he was selected as the referee by the League of Nations to review Jan Tinbergen’s work on business cycles that used an econometrics approach based on The Law of Large Numbers, the Central Limit Theorem, and the Gaussian (Normal) Distribution .The fundamental axiom used by Tinbergen was additivity . Kolmogorov and the Moscow School of Probability’s main innovation was to go from the axiom of additivity to the axiom of countable additivity. However, Keynes rejected additivity except in the special case that the weight of the evidence, w, which measured the relative completeness of the evidence ,defined on the closed unit interval [0,1],equaled 1 , approached 1,or approximated 1. Keynes also accepted goodness of fit tests, such as the Lexis –Q test, and exploratory data analysis as evidence that could be used to support using a particular probability distribution.



Keynes, knowledge, probability and the method of economics

Por • 21 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

The passage from A Treatise on Probability quoted above appeared in slightly modified form in the first version of the dissertation on probabilities that Keynes presented in December 1907 as part of his attempt to obtain a fellowship at King’s College. Contrary to Keynes’s prediction, the efforts to bring ‘the moral sciences under the sway of mathematical reasoning’ was not receding at that time, particularly in economics. This drove him, three decades later, to criticize sharply the tendency towards the mathematization of economics and particularly the emerging field of econometrics. And if Keynes were resurrected today, it would be to discover that the subordination of the moral sciences to mathematics has been further consolidated, not only in economics, which increasingly resembles a branch of applied mathematics, but in several other social sciences as well.



Four Fundamental Questions in Probability Theory and Statistics

Por • 16 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

This study has the purpose of addressing four questions that lie at the base of the probability theory and statistics, and includes two main steps. As first, we conduct the textual analysis of the most significant works written by eminent probability theorists. The textual analysis turns out to be a rather innovative method of study in this domain, and shows how the sampled writers, no matter he is a frequentist or a subjectivist, share a similar approach. Each author argues on the multifold aspects of probability then he establishes the mathematical theory on the basis of his intellectual conclusions. It may be said that mathematics ranks second. Hilbert foresees an approach far different from that used by the sampled authors. He proposes to axiomatize the probability calculus notably to describe the probability concepts using purely mathematical criteria.



This infinite, unanimous dissonance: A Study in Mathematical Existentialism,Through the Work of Jean-Paul Sartre and Alain Badiou

Por • 13 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

The wager of this thesis is that this question bears more fruit than might be expected, and that, if pursued, it offers valuable insight into the structure and trajectory of Badiou’s thought,illuminating the inner workings of Sartre’s ontology in the same stroke. One effect of this pursuit is that the rubric ‘mathematical existentialism’ comes to suggest itself quite strongly as a description of Badiou’s project, as undertaken in his landmark text, Being and Event . The value of this label, though, lies more in forcing a question than in promising an adequate description. It is for this reason I chose it as a title, as the first words of this project rather than the last. It nevertheless threatens to cause some confusion, which I will try to dispel straightaway.



Una lectura del poema de Parménides En busca del “qué” de la filosofía

Por • 10 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

La exposición tendrá lugar así: una lectura y análisis del poema de Parménides; del proemio consignamos una de las últimas interpretaciones, de la vía de la verdad hacemos una aclaración un tanto exhaustiva, mientras que de la vía de las opiniones sólo dejamos apuntadas las cuestiones principales. En lo que sigue hacemos una exposición de la interpretación “metafísica” de la mismidad del pensar y del ser, en tanto identidad, en Platón, Plotino y Hegel. Y por último en Heidegger, según el cual la mismidad, en cambio, tiene que concebirse como mutua pertenencia.



Trump afirma que EEUU no saldrá de Irak y amenaza con sanciones

Por • 8 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

El mandatario estadounidense, Donald Trump, dijo a los periodistas a bordo del avión presidencial que el país norteamericano no saldrá de Irak hasta que Bagdad pague por la base aérea de EEUU. Además, el presidente amenazó con implementar sanciones contra Irak en caso de que se prosiga con la exigencia de que la tropas estadounidenses abandonen el país.



Inner privacy of conscious experiences and quantum information

Por • 6 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

The human mind is constituted by inner, subjective, private, first-person conscious experiences that cannot be measured with physical devices or observed from an external, objective, public, third-person perspective. The qualitative, phenomenal nature of conscious experiences also cannot be communicated to others in the form of a message composed of classical bits of information. Because in a classical world everything physical is observable and communicable, it is a daunting task to explain how an empirically unobservable, incommunicable consciousness could have any physical substrates such as neurons composed of biochemical molecules, water, and electrolytes.



The (Quantum) Measurement Problem in Classical Mechanics

Por • 3 ene, 2020 • Category: Educacion

In this work we analyze the deep link between the 20th Century positivist re-foundation of physics and the famous measurement problem of quantum mechanics. We attempt to show why this is not an «obvious» nor «self evident» problem for the theory of quanta, but rather a direct consequence of the empirical-positivist understanding of physical theories when applied to the orthodox quantum formalism. In contraposition, we discuss a representational realist account of both physical ‘theories’ and ‘measurement’ which goes back to the works of Einstein, Heisenberg and Pauli.



Diógenes Laercio IX 61-116: Pirrón y los pirrónicos. Traducción y comentario

Por • 25 dic, 2019 • Category: Educacion

Uno de los documentos de la Antigüedad que más atención suscita en los años recientes es el llamado Vidas de los filósofos de Diógenes Laercio. Una nueva edición del texto griego salió a la luz en 1999 (Marcovich) y otra más está en preparación. A pesar de que durante mucho tiempo se consideró este tratado solamente como un nutrido testimonio doxográfico, y a la persona misma de Diógenes como un transmisor poco fiable de noticias, para la historia de la filosofía es parte de la tradición material que necesariamente ha resultado indispensable en la construcción de nuestra visión de la filosofía griega hoy en día.



2020 Facts And Figures Of The European Chemical Industry

Por • 19 dic, 2019 • Category: Educacion

With over 1.1 million workers, €565 billion turnover and €10 billion R&I investments, the European chemical industry is a wealth generating sector of the economy and a major contributor to building a sustainable future for Europe.