Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Educacion’

Postulating the theory of experience and chance as a theory of co~events (co~beings)

Por • 21 feb, 2018 • Category: Educacion

The paper aim is the axiomatic justification of the theory of experience and chance, one of the dual halves of which is the Kolmogorov probability theory. The author’s main idea was the natural inclusion of Kolmogorov’s axiomatics of probability theory in a number of general concepts of the theory of experience and chance. The analogy between the measure of a set and the probability of an event has become clear for a long time. This analogy also allows further evolution: the measure of a set is completely analogous to the believability of an event. In order to postulate the theory of experience and chance on the basis of this analogy, you just need to add to the Kolmogorov probability theory its dual reflection – the believability theory, so that the theory of experience and chance could be postulated as the certainty (believability-probability) theory on the Cartesian product of the probability and believability spaces, and the central concept of the theory is the new notion of co~event as a measurable binary relation on the Cartesian product of sets of elementary incomes and elementary outcomes. Attempts to build the foundations of the theory of experience and chance from this general point of view are unknown to me, and the whole range of ideas presented here has not yet acquired popularity even in a narrow circle of specialists; in addition



Does probabilism solve the great quantum mistery?

Por • 18 feb, 2018 • Category: Educacion

What sort of entities are electrons, photons and atoms given their wave-like and particle-like properties? Is nature fundamentally deterministic or probabilistic? Orthodox quantum theory (OQT) evades answering these two basic questions by being a theory about the results of performing measurements on quantum sys-tems. But this evasion results in OQT being a seriously defective theory. A rival, somewhat ignored strategy is to conjecture that the quantum domain is fundamentally probabilistic. This means quantum entities, in-teracting with one another probabilistically, must differ radically from the entities of deterministic classical physics, the classical wave or particle. It becomes possible to conceive of quantum entities as a new kind of fundamentally probabilistic entity, the “propensiton”, neither wave nor particle. A fully micro realistic, test-able rival to OQT results.



Theory of Probability. An Elementary Treatise against a Historical Background

Por • 15 feb, 2018 • Category: Educacion

A popular scientific contribution should not contradict any established facts and ought to be understandable. I complied with both these requirements and am offering a sufficiently full introduction to probability theory. Furthermore, I enlivened my text with much information about the history of probability and commentaries on the occurring notions which do not belong to that theory. Indeed, a student is not a container to be filled but a torch to be kindled. I hope therefore that my piece will essentially benefit beginners, be also methodically useful to advanced readers, and even attract some inquisitive people to probability.



Metacomputable

Por • 2 feb, 2018 • Category: Educacion

The paper introduces the notion of “metacomputable” processes as those which are the product of computable processes. This notion seems interesting in the instance when metacomputable processes may not be computable themselves, but are produced by computable ones. The notion of computability used here relies on Turing computability. When we talk about something being non-computable, this can be viewed as computation that incorporates Turing’s oracle, maybe a true randomizer (perhaps a quantum one). The notions of “processes” is used broadly, so that it also covers “objects” under the functional description; for the sake of this paper an object is seen as computable if processes that fully describe relevant aspects of its functioning are computable. The paper also introduces a distinction between phenomenal content and the epistemic subject which holds that content. The distinction provides an application of the notion of the metacomputable. In accordance with the functional definition of computable objects, sketched out above, it is possible to think of objects, such as brains, as being computable. If we take the functionality of brains relevant for consideration to be their supposed ability to generate first-person consciousness, and if they were computable in this regard, it would mean that brains, as generators of consciousness, could be described, straightforwardly, by Turing-computable mathematical functions. If there were other, maybe artificial, generators of first-person consciousness, then we could hope to design those as Turing-computable machines as well.



Clases y Estados

Por • 13 ene, 2018 • Category: Educacion

Por un lado tenemos que Bueno pone «del revés» la tesis marxista sobre el origen del Estado. El resultado de dicha inversión dialéctica es que, en virtud de ella, el Estado aparece constituido en el proceso de codeterminación con otros Estados competidores en la lucha por los medios de producción, y no en el proceso de codeterminación con sus clases sociales internas en supuesta lucha por lo mismo. Por tanto, desde un punto de vista genético, el Estado y las clases sociales no se codeterminan en un mismo proceso dialéctico. Pero, por otro lado, desde un punto de vista sistemático (o estructural si se prefiere), tenemos un momento determinado del desarrollo procesual del Estado en el que la dialéctica de las clases sociales y la dialéctica del Estado «intersectan» codeterminándose en un mismo proceso dialéctico. Nos encontramos, por tanto, delante de una contradicción en toda regla, pues en ese momento determinado del desarrollo procesual de Estado (momento-límite), tendríamos forzosamente que reconocer que ya no se está reproduciendo el mismo proceso de codeterminación en el que éste se constituye.



La ilusión venezolana

Por • 8 ene, 2018 • Category: Educacion

Uno de los fastos más espectaculares sobre las celebraciones bicentenarias fue el que se llevo a cabo en Venezuela conmemorando el 5 de Julio de 1811, porque, se dice, entonces se declaró la independencia. Pero si preguntamos ¿quién la declara? ¿a quién afecta esa independencia? ¿contra quién se declaran independientes? ¿cuánto dura la independencia proclamada? o sencillamente: ¿por qué se declara la independencia?, la confusión es evidente; pero también «objetiva», es decir, deriva de los procesos mismos y de las ideas involucradas en ellas. Una de las respuestas a estas preguntas es la que se «representó» el 30 de julio de 2011 con el desfile bicentenario (añadido al oficial del 5 de Julio de 2011); lo que nos proponemos en esta ocasión es clasificar esta respuesta y ver qué significa, es decir juzgar o distinguir los componentes reales de los ilusorios (por aparentes y falaces o bien por posibles y esperanzadores).



Information and Self-Organization

Por • 7 ene, 2018 • Category: Educacion

The process of “self-organization” takes place in open and complex systems that acquire spatio-temporal or functional structures without specific ordering instructions from the outside.



Companions, Causality and Codensity

Por • 1 ene, 2018 • Category: Educacion

In the context of abstract coinduction in complete lattices, the notion of compatible function makes it possible to introduce enhancements of the coinduction proof principle. The largest compatible function, called the companion, subsumes most enhancements and has been proved to enjoy many good properties. Here we move to universal coalgebra, where the corresponding notion is that of a final distributive law. We show that when it exists the final distributive law is a monad, and that it coincides with the codensity monad of the final sequence of the given functor. On sets, we moreover characterise this codensity monad using a new abstract notion of causality. In particular, we recover the fact that on streams, the functions definable by a distributive law or GSOS specification are precisely the causal functions. Going back to enhancements of the coinductive proof principle, we finally obtain that any causal function gives rise to a valid up-to-context technique.



Unit root behavior in energy futures prices

Por • 28 dic, 2017 • Category: Educacion

This paper re-examines the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, tests for unit roots in the univariate time-series representation of the daily crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline series are performed using recent state-of-the-art methodology. The results show that the unit root hypothesis can be rejected if allowance is made for the possibility of a one-time break in the intercept and the slope of the trend function at an unknown point in time.



Venezuela y China: tres lustros de Asociación Estratégica

Por • 21 dic, 2017 • Category: Educacion

A pesar de que la Franja y la Ruta es un proyecto de cooperación concebido inicialmente para el continente asiático, europeo y africano, en su relanzamiento involucra América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). En consecuencia, los países de ALC ya han adelantado iniciativas bilaterales con China en el marco de la consolidación de la Franja y la Ruta, entre ellas, la construcción de un ferrocarril transcontinental entre Perú y Brasil, un corredor bioceánico entre Chile y Argentina, el canal de Nicaragua, así como centrales hidroeléctricas entre China y Argentina. En el caso particular de Venezuela (país que concentra el mayor volumen de inversiones de China en la región y que sostiene un modelo de relacionamiento bilateral basado en la venta de petróleo a futuro), Venezuela recientemente participó en el Foro de la Franja y la Ruta, y también forma parte del BAII al igual que Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia y Perú.