Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Opinion’

El ser de los accidentes en Aristóteles: pautas de interpretación

Por • 8 dic, 2018 • Category: Opinion

El presente artículo analiza la cuestión del ser de los accidentes en Aristóteles. Dicho análisis se lleva a cabo en el contexto de la interpretación ofrecida por el filosofo español Fernando Inciarte, para quien el tema se plantea adecuadamente radicándolo en la perspectiva del tiempo. Desde esta perspectiva, Inciarte atribuye a Aristóteles una teoría de la sustancia en la cual —para el Estagirita— los accidentes carecen de existencia y se distinguen de la sustancia solo conceptualmente. El principal objetivo de este artículo es cuestionar la interpretación de Inciarte, confrontándola con diversos textos de Aristóteles.



Recent Advances in Metaphysics: Ontological Categories and Categorial Schemes

Por • 28 nov, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Desde una perspectiva ontológica tradicional, y con la declarada intención de alejarse del relativismo contemporáneo, el presente escrito busca establecer algunos principios básicos para mantener la posición de la metafísica como el estudio sistemático de la realidad como un todo, y de la ontología como la ciencia del ser, sustentada en una teoría de categorías. Estas categorías están diferenciadas por las características distintivas de existencia e identidad de sus respectivos miembros, tomándose como «categorías ontológicas fundamentales» aquellas en donde sus miembros tienen condiciones para estas características de existencia e identidad que no sean especificables en una forma exhaustiva, en términos de dependencia ontológica, entre esos miembros y los miembros de otras categorías ontológicas. Este escrito hace entonces una revisión de las diferentes teorías de categorías ontológicas, y sus respectivas interpretaciones de cuántas y cuáles categorías deben ser reconocidas.



Historical Approach to Physics according to Kant, Einstein, and Hegel

Por • 17 nov, 2018 • Category: Opinion

It is known that Einstein’s conceptual base for his theory of relativity was the philosophy formulated by Immanuel Kant. Things appear differently to observers in different frames. However, Kant’s Ding-an-Sich leads to the existence of the absolute reference frame which is not acceptable in Einstein’s theory. It is possible to avoid this conflict using the ancient Chinese philosophy of Taoism where two different views can co-exist in harmony. This is not enough to explain Einstein’s discovery of the mass-energy relation. The energy-momentum relations for slow and ultra-fast particles take different forms. Einstein was able to synthesize these two formulas to create his energy-mass relation. Indeed, this is what Hegelianism is about in physics. Isaac Newton synthesized open orbits for comets and closed orbits for planets to create his second law of motion. Maxwell combined electricity and magnetism to create his four equations to the present-day wireless world. In order to synthesize wave and particle views of matter, Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle. Relativity and quantum mechanics are the two greatest theories formulated in the 20th Century. Efforts to synthesize these two theories are discussed in detail.



Treatment Effect Models with Strategic Interaction in Treatment Decisions

Por • 10 nov, 2018 • Category: Opinion

This study develops identification and estimation methods for treatment effect models with strategic interaction in treatment decisions. We consider models where one’s treatment choice and outcome can be endogenously affected by others’ treatment choices. We formulate the interaction of treatment decisions as a two-player complete information game with potential multiple equilibria. For this model, under the assumption of a stochastic equilibrium selection rule, we prove that the marginal treatment effect (MTE) from one’s own treatment and that from his/her partner’s can be separately point-identified using a latent index framework. Based on our constructive identification results, we propose a two-step semiparametric procedure for estimating the MTE parameters using series approximation. We show that the proposed estimator is uniformly consistent with the optimal convergence rate and has asymptotic normality.



An attempt at reading Keynes’ Treatise on Probability

Por • 31 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

The book A Treatise on Probability was published by John Maynard Keynes in 1921. It contains a critical assessment of the foundations of probability and of the current statistical methodology. As a modern reader, we review here the aspects that are most related with statistics, avoiding a neophyte’s perspective on the philosophical issues. In particular, the book is quite critical of the Bayesian approach and we examine the arguments provided by Keynes, as well as the alternative he proposes. This review does not subsume the scholarly study of Aldrich (2008a) relating Keynes with the statistics community of the time.



El mito de la «Rueda de la Fortuna» en el Renacimiento español y la Idea de Historia

Por • 24 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Ahora bien, sí queremos hacer antes unas consideraciones generales sobre el asunto en relación con las ideas básicas de la ontología materialista. Y es, a saber, que lo que llamamos metáforas y analogías como construcciones lingüísticas «necesitan» para poder definirse del «principio de la symploké» del pluralismo ontológico, puesto que son en su ejercicio conceptos críticos tanto del monismo como del atomismo. Del primero, porque si todo está con todo no hay nada que comparar, y las metáforas y las analogías se basan precisamente en la efectiva desconexión material de unas partes de la realidad con otras, de tal suerte que su valor reside precisamente en conectar «verbalmente» según algún aspecto real (el famoso «secundum quid»), lo que está desconectado, y a sabiendas de su desconexión. Y críticos también del atomismo, porque si nada tuviera relación con nada, tampoco podríamos ver sus semejanzas o conexiones (el poeta que dice «el mar de tus ojos», «sabe», si es que no delira, que en los ojos no hay ningún mar; por el contrario, el «delirio mitológico» de las religiones secundarias, «religiones falsas» para el materialismo filosófico, consiste en la «verdad» de unos dioses que pululan detrás de cualquier fenómeno como si fuesen sus agentes



On the strongest three-valued paraconsistent logic contained in classical logic

Por • 12 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

LP⊃,F is a three-valued paraconsistent propositional logic which is essentially the same as J3. It has most properties that have been proposed as desirable properties of a reasonable paraconsistent propositional logic. However, it follows easily from already published results that there are exactly 8192 different three-valued paraconsistent propositional logics that have the properties concerned. In this note, properties concerning the logical equivalence relation of a logic are used to distinguish LP⊃,F from the others. As one of the bonuses of focussing on the logical equivalence relation, it is found that only 32 of the 8192 logics have a logical equivalence relation that satisfies the identity, annihilation, idempotent, and commutative laws for conjunction and disjunction.



Characterizing complex networks using Entropy-degree diagrams: unveiling changes in functional brain connectivity induced by Ayahuasca

Por • 7 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Open problems abound in the theory of complex networks, which has found successful application to diverse fields of science. With the aim of further advancing the understanding of the brain’s functional connectivity, we propose to evaluate a network metric which we term the geodesic entropy. This entropy, in a way that can be made precise, quantifies the Shannon entropy of the distance distribution to a specific node from all other nodes. Measurements of geodesic entropy allow for the characterization of the structural information of a network that takes into account the distinct role of each node into the network topology. The measurement and characterization of this structural information has the potential to greatly improve our understanding of sustained activity and other emergent behaviors in networks, such as self-organized criticality sometimes seen in such contexts. We apply these concepts and methods to study the effects of how the psychedelic Ayahuasca affects the functional connectivity of the human brain. We show that the geodesic entropy is able to differentiate the functional networks of the human brain in two different states of consciousness in the resting state: (i) the ordinary waking state and (ii) a state altered by ingestion of the Ayahuasca.



Networks and the Resilience and Fall of Empires: a Macro-Comparison of the Imperium Romanum and Imperial China

Por • 2 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

This paper proposes to proceed from a rather metaphorical application of network terminology on polities and imperial formations of the past to an actual use of tools and concepts of network science. For this purpose, a well established network model of the route system in the Roman Empire and a newly created network model of the infrastructural web of Imperial China are visualised and analysed with regard to their structural properties. Findings indicate that these systems could be understood as large scale complex networks with pronounced differences in centrality and connectivity among places and a hierarchical sequence of clusters across spatial scales from the overregional to the local level.



Milestone developments in quantum Information and No-Go theorems

Por • 28 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

In this article, we present year wise gradual milestone developments in quantum information. The theory of quantum information has its impact in several phases strongly in developing quantum computer and quantum communication systems, which have their lucid properties in terms of security, fast speed and much storage capacity. We present milestone developments with historical perspectives from 1970 to 2018, in quantum information along with frequently used important no-go theorems.