Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Opinion’

On the strongest three-valued paraconsistent logic contained in classical logic

Por • 12 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

LP⊃,F is a three-valued paraconsistent propositional logic which is essentially the same as J3. It has most properties that have been proposed as desirable properties of a reasonable paraconsistent propositional logic. However, it follows easily from already published results that there are exactly 8192 different three-valued paraconsistent propositional logics that have the properties concerned. In this note, properties concerning the logical equivalence relation of a logic are used to distinguish LP⊃,F from the others. As one of the bonuses of focussing on the logical equivalence relation, it is found that only 32 of the 8192 logics have a logical equivalence relation that satisfies the identity, annihilation, idempotent, and commutative laws for conjunction and disjunction.



Characterizing complex networks using Entropy-degree diagrams: unveiling changes in functional brain connectivity induced by Ayahuasca

Por • 7 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Open problems abound in the theory of complex networks, which has found successful application to diverse fields of science. With the aim of further advancing the understanding of the brain’s functional connectivity, we propose to evaluate a network metric which we term the geodesic entropy. This entropy, in a way that can be made precise, quantifies the Shannon entropy of the distance distribution to a specific node from all other nodes. Measurements of geodesic entropy allow for the characterization of the structural information of a network that takes into account the distinct role of each node into the network topology. The measurement and characterization of this structural information has the potential to greatly improve our understanding of sustained activity and other emergent behaviors in networks, such as self-organized criticality sometimes seen in such contexts. We apply these concepts and methods to study the effects of how the psychedelic Ayahuasca affects the functional connectivity of the human brain. We show that the geodesic entropy is able to differentiate the functional networks of the human brain in two different states of consciousness in the resting state: (i) the ordinary waking state and (ii) a state altered by ingestion of the Ayahuasca.



Networks and the Resilience and Fall of Empires: a Macro-Comparison of the Imperium Romanum and Imperial China

Por • 2 oct, 2018 • Category: Opinion

This paper proposes to proceed from a rather metaphorical application of network terminology on polities and imperial formations of the past to an actual use of tools and concepts of network science. For this purpose, a well established network model of the route system in the Roman Empire and a newly created network model of the infrastructural web of Imperial China are visualised and analysed with regard to their structural properties. Findings indicate that these systems could be understood as large scale complex networks with pronounced differences in centrality and connectivity among places and a hierarchical sequence of clusters across spatial scales from the overregional to the local level.



Milestone developments in quantum Information and No-Go theorems

Por • 28 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

In this article, we present year wise gradual milestone developments in quantum information. The theory of quantum information has its impact in several phases strongly in developing quantum computer and quantum communication systems, which have their lucid properties in terms of security, fast speed and much storage capacity. We present milestone developments with historical perspectives from 1970 to 2018, in quantum information along with frequently used important no-go theorems.



L∞ and A∞ structures: then and now

Por • 25 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Looking back over 55 years of higher homotopy structures, I reminisce as I recall the early days and ponder how they developed and how I now see them. From the history of A∞-structures and later of L∞ -structures and their progeny, I hope to highlight some old results which seem not to have garnered the attention they deserve as well as some tantalizing new connections.



The Lambda Calculus: Practice and Principle

Por • 19 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

The Lambda Calculus has perplexed students of computer science for millennia, rendering many incapable of understanding even the most basic precepts of functional programming. This paper gently introduces the core concepts to the lay reader, assuming only a minimum of background knowledge in category theory, quantum chromodynamics, and paleomagnetism. In addition, this paper goes on to its main results, showing how the Lambda Calculus can be used to easily prove the termination of Leibniz’ Hailstone numbers for all n > 0, to show that matrix multiplication is possible in linear time, and to guarantee Scottish independence.



¡Traicionan la patria!

Por • 15 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Colocando al frente de ella a Juntas Directivas sin ningún tipo de conocimiento sobre este complejo sector, representantes de parcialidades políticas y grupos de intereses económicos, que paralizaron los procesos medulares de nuestra principal empresa e hicieron que colapsara, al punto que la misma ha perdido, desde el año 2014 hasta la fecha, más de 1.8 millones de barriles día de petróleo, lo cual significa una pérdida anual de 43 mil millones de dólares de ingresos para el país. Han entregado nuestra Política Petrolera, que demostró durante años los inmensos beneficios que trajo al país, la recaudación de más de 500 mil millones de dólares, producto del Régimen Fiscal Petrolero y del control sobre las operaciones por parte del Estado, a través de PDVSA, nos dieron estabilidad y crecimiento y nos permitieron abordar los problemas sociales y hacer una distribución, por primera vez en la historia de nuestro país, popular y revolucionaria de la renta petrolera.



Viva China! US stymied as Beijing extends influence into Latin America

Por • 14 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

The US is mistakenly focusing on hard power at the expense of soft power: Joseph Nye, the founding father of soft power, warned that the Trump administration has eroded America’s soft power capabilities. Citing a survey from the Pew Research Centre, among respondents from 134 countries, only 30% had a positive attitude toward the US – the same proportion as toward China.



Will Someone in Washington Play the Ace of Spades before November?

Por • 10 sep, 2018 • Category: Opinion

Whether Trump decides to lay down the Ace of Spades or the self-guiding machinery of power seeking to undermine him does so on its own, we are in for a run of heightened danger between now and Election Day (November 6). While there are a number of possible flashpoints, one theater stands out: again Syria, where the impending government offensive against the last significant area still held by jihadists, al-Qaeda-occupied Idlib, sets the stage for yet another false flag chemical weapons attack.



From the More Geometrico to the More Algebraico: D’alambert and the Enlightenment’s transformation of systematic order

Por • 31 ago, 2018 • Category: Opinion

When Beaumarchais let the major antagonist of his play The Barber of Seville voice his contempt of the siècle des lumières, he was not just introducing the character as an insufferable bigot, but also ironically characterizing the movement that he himself championed: the Enlightenment. For many European intellectuals, the Enlightenment heralded the loss of the stability and structure that were regained only a century earlier over the chaos of the reformation.1 This loss of structure not only became apparent in the realm of the political, where republicanism soon ran rampant through various social strata and classes, but also in the hallowed halls of epistemology and metaphysics. If the Enlightenment was the Age of Reason, it was so only in a very peculiar sense2 : all that the seventeenth century had recognized as rational – systematic structure, deductive order, unshakable foundation and certainty – was now disdained and scorned as oppression and hierarchy, barren tautology, superstition and a headstrong insensitivity to the one truly productive force in human reasoning: doubt. It was, then, the age of Reason’s self-deprecation and self-castigation.