Hemeroteca de la sección ‘Opinion’

Análisis del diferendo Jurídico y político entre Colombia y Venezuela con respecto al dominio sobre el Golfo de Coquivacoa/de Venezuela y sus límites marítimos, 1952-2010

Por • 29 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

La demarcación de los límites fronterizos de la República de Colombia, tiene como base el principio internacional Uti possidetis iuris de 1810, (muy utilizado en América Latina) el cual ha sido plataforma de sus tratados en límites territoriales junto con laudos arbitrales. En la actualidad el Estado colombiano enfrenta un antaño diferendo limítrofe con la República Bolivariana de Venezuela por límites marítimos en el Golfo de Coquivacoa/Venezuela. El diferendo colombo-venezolano data de 1830 con la separación de Capitanía General de Venezuela de la Gran Colombia. Desde esta fecha al 2010 no ha existido una solución definitiva, pues si bien los límites territoriales quedaron definidos, no fue así con los límites marítimos y submarinos.



(Non)-neutrality of science and algorithms: Machine Learning between fundamental physics and society

Por • 23 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

The impact of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms in the age of big data and platform capitalism has not spared scientific research in academia. In this work, we will analyse the use of ML in fundamental physics and its relationship to other cases that directly affect society. We will deal with different aspects of the issue, from a bibliometric analysis of the publications, to a detailed discussion of the literature, to an overview on the productive and working context inside and outside academia. The analysis will be conducted on the basis of three key elements: the non-neutrality of science, understood as its intrinsic relationship with history and society; the non-neutrality of the algorithms, in the sense of the presence of elements that depend on the choices of the programmer, which cannot be eliminated whatever the technological progress is



Generalized Realizability and Basic Logic

Por • 20 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

Let V be a set of number-theoretical functions. We define a notion of absolute V-realizability for predicate formulas and sequents in such a way that the indices of functions in V are used for interpreting the implication and the universal quantifier. In this paper we prove that Basic Logic is sound with respect to the semantics of absolute V-realizability if V satisfies some natural conditions.



La lógica IF y los fundamentos de las matemáticas

Por • 15 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

El objetivo del presente artículo es someter a escrutinio la afirmación de Hintikka según la cual la verdadera lógica elemental no es la clásica sino la lógica IF y, en consecuencia, el marco en que ordinariamente son pensadas las relaciones entre lógica y matemáticas es por completo inadecuado. Para ello, primero se exponen las funciones o características que una lógica debe poseer y, en segundo lugar, se presentan las ideas constitutivas de la lógica IF.



Sovereign Default Risk and Credit Supply: Evidence from the Euro Area

Por • 12 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

Did sovereign default risk affect macroeconomic activity through firms’ access to credit during the European sovereign debt crisis? We investigate this question by a estimating a structural panel vector autoregressive model for Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Ireland, where the sovereign risk shock is identified using sign restrictions. The results suggest that decline in the creditworthiness of the sovereign contributed to a fall in private lending and economic activity in several euro-area countries by reducing the value of banks’ assets and crowding out private lending.



Capital and Labor Income Pareto Exponents across Time and Space

Por • 10 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

We estimate capital and labor income Pareto exponents across 348 country-year observations that span 51 countries over half a century. We document two stylized facts: (i) capital income is more unequally distributed than labor income; namely, the capital exponent (1-3) is smaller than labor (2-5), and (ii) capital and labor exponents are nearly uncorrelated. To explain these findings, we build an incomplete market model with job ladders and capital income risk that gives rise to a capital income Pareto exponent smaller than but nearly unrelated to the labor exponent. Our results suggest the importance of distinguishing income and wealth inequality.



Can Washington expand G7 in anti-Beijing move?

Por • 7 jun, 2020 • Category: Opinion

The US, this year’s host country for the G7 summit, reportedly intends to form a «G11″ by inviting South Korea, Australia, Russia and India to attend the meeting that has been postponed until at least September. But how well the US has maintained its global leadership capacity is in question, as is whether or not it will be able to use the summit as a platform to promote its anti-China agenda.



Foundations and Philosophy

Por • 27 may, 2020 • Category: Opinion

The Univalent Foundations (UF) of mathematics take the point of view that spatial notions (e.g. “point” and “path”) are fundamental, rather than derived, and that all of mathematics can be encoded in terms of them. We will argue that this new point of view has important implications for philosophy, and especially for those parts of analytic philosophy that take set theory and first-order logic as their benchmark of rigor. To do so, we will explore the connection between foundations and philosophy, outline what is distinctive about the logic of UF, and then describe new philosophical theses one can express in terms of this new logic.



China updates its ‘Art of (Hybrid) War’

Por • 21 may, 2020 • Category: Opinion

Unrestricted Warfare was essentially the PLA’s manual for asymmetric warfare: an updating of Sun Tzu’s Art of War. At the time of original publication, with China still a long way from its current geopolitical and geo-economic clout, the book was conceived as laying out a defensive approach, far from the sensationalist “destroy America” added to the title for US publication in 2004. General Qiao is not a Politburo member entitled to dictate official policy. But some analysts I talked with agree that the key points he makes in a personal capacity are quite revealing of PLA thinking. Let’s review some of the highlights.



The Strength of Abstraction with Predicative Comprehension

Por • 18 may, 2020 • Category: Opinion

Frege’s theorem says that second-order Peano arithmetic is interpretable in Hume’s Principle and full impredicative comprehension. Hume’s Principle is one example of an abstraction principle, while another paradigmatic example is Basic Law V from Frege’s Grundgesetze. In this paper we study the strength of abstraction principles in the presence of predicative restrictions on the comprehension schema, and in particular we study a predicative Fregean theory which contains all the abstraction principles whose underlying equivalence relations can be proven to be equivalence relations in a weak background second-order logic. We show that this predicative Fregean theory interprets second-order Peano arithmetic.