Hemeroteca de la sección ‘sociologia’

Pensar el sorteo. Modos de selección, marcos deliberativos y principios democráticos

Por • 22 feb, 2018 • Category: sociologia

¿Cómo pensar el sorteo con eficacia? Mi propuesta es construir una teoría general del sorteo, abordándolo de forma comparativa, para averiguar cuáles son las constantes teóricas entre la gran diversidad empírica de sus usos particulares. En primer lugar, comparo el sorteo a los otros tres modos de selección: elección, nombramiento o cooptación y certificación. En segundo lugar, analizo los marcos deliberativos, es decir, “quién decide qué y cómo”. Tercero, distingo cuatro principios democráticos del sorteo: igualdad, imparcialidad, representatividad y legitimidad.



Systems of Global Governance in the Era of Human-Machine Convergence

Por • 18 feb, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Technology is increasingly shaping our social structures and is becoming a driving force in altering human biology. Besides, human activities already proved to have a significant impact on the Earth system which in turn generates complex feedback loops between social and ecological systems. Furthermore, since our species evolved relatively fast from small groups of hunter-gatherers to large and technology-intensive urban agglomerations, it is not a surprise that the major institutions of human society are no longer fit to cope with the present complexity. In this note we draw foundational parallelisms between neurophysiological systems and ICT-enabled social systems, discussing how frameworks rooted in biology and physics could provide heuristic value in the design of evolutionary systems relevant to politics and economics.



Memorandum of Pyotr Durnovo to the Star February 1914

Por • 4 feb, 2018 • Category: sociologia

The central factor of the period of world history through which we are now passing is the rivalry between England and Germany. This rivalry must inevitably lead to an armed struggle between them, the issue of which will, in all probability, prove fatal to the vanquished side. The interests of these two powers are far too incompatible, and their simultaneous existence as world powers will sooner or later prove impossible. Under what conditions will this clash occur and what will be its probable consequences? The fundamental groupings in a future war are self-evident: Russia, France, and England, on the one side, with Germany, Austria, and Turkey, on the other. It is more than likely that other powers, too, will participate in that war, depending upon circumstances as they may exist at the war’s outbreak. But, whether the immediate cause for the war is furnished by another clash of conflicting interests in the Balkans, or by a colonial incident, such as that of Algeciras, the fundamental alignment will remain unchanged.



¿Qué es un aventurero?

Por • 13 ene, 2018 • Category: sociologia

En todo caso, difícilmente podríamos hacer del aventurero el prototipo del ciudadano libre que propugnaron los revolucionarios de la Libertad, de la Igualdad y de la Fraternidad. Sólo que esto no merma el valor del aventurero, pues ¿acaso la libertad es la medida del valor? Una acción por ser libre, no ha de ser valiosa. Una acción libre puede ser delictiva o perversa. De donde se sigue que la libertad, por sí misma, no merece el respeto que tantas constituciones democráticas le conceden. El respeto hay que concedérselo a los resultados de la acción libre, a los resultados de la libertad, y no a la libertad misma. En conclusión habrá que decir que el aventurero, no por no ser hombre libre, en sentido civil, carece de valor. Su valor está en otra parte, en su destino, cuando éste sea valioso. El valor del aventurero habrá que medirlo, en efecto, no tanto por sus aventuras cuanto por el valor del destino al que estas aventuras hayan podido llevarle.



Theorists and Thieves

Por • 8 ene, 2018 • Category: sociologia

As the debate was playing out in the pages of Le Monde, a small group of Danish Maoists took the unusual step of breaking relations with the Communist Party of China over these very questions. In 1970, they formed an underground organization of highly disciplined cadres who would implement what they saw as the political implications of Emmanuel’s position: to forego the fight for socialism in the immediate future in Denmark, and turn instead toward the third world. From 1972 on, they devoted their efforts to political solidarity work through a legal charity that they founded, Clothes to Africa, and a criminal cell—unknown to most members of either the group or the charity—that carried out bank robberies to help fund progressive forces fighting for revolution in Palestine, South Africa, and elsewhere.



The ‘European New Right': Defining and Defending Europe’s Heritage

Por • 4 ene, 2018 • Category: sociologia

During the postwar era — approximately 1945-1990 — European intellectual life was dominated by Marxists (most of them admirers of the Soviet experiment), and by supporters of a liberal-democratic society modeled largely on the United States. Aside from important differences, each group shared common notions about the desirability and ultimate inevitability of a universal “one world” democratic order, into which individual cultures and nations would eventually be absorbed. Not all European thinkers accepted this vision, though. Since the late 1960s, a relatively small but intense circle of youthful scholars, intellectuals, political theorists, activists, professors, and even a few elected parliamentarians, has been striving — quietly, but with steadily growing influence — to chart a future for Europe that rejects the universalism and egalitarianism of both the Soviet Marxist and American capitalist models.



Foundations of the economic and social history of the United States: Metaphysical

Por • 24 dic, 2017 • Category: sociologia

“Oppositional Analysis” – the name I give to the metaphysics presented in this volume – proposes a number of dichotomies through which one may analyze and understand systematically the structure of every level of reality. Macroeconomic theory, as well as social research, are two excellent stages upon which we may search for clues and insights to the interaction of oppositions. This is so particularly in connection with an analysis of the precepts of the “Austrian School” of macroeconomics as presented by Ludwig von Mises in his well-known and highly influential book Human Action.Based upon the circuit given for a musical note (see the Apologia and the Introduction to Volume 2, as well as the more extensive treatment herein) and the “Circuit of Being” which will be introduced in this final volume, I propose a model of economics which may correlate with a view of the physical universe of five dimensions as suggested by Theodor Kaluza.



The OIC Is the Muslim World’s Voice. Christian Countries Should Have One Too!

Por • 21 dic, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Of course, as with the OIC a prospective OCC could and should be vocal on international issues. Starting in the 1990s, it began to be apparent even in polite, secular company that persecution of Christians was rampant in some countries, and that indeed more Christians died for their faith in the 20th century alone than in all the 19 centuries preceding it. To come to grips with anti-Christian persecution, the U.S. Congress enacted the 1998 International Religious Freedom Act, which in implementation unfortunately soon veered towards promoting generic “religious liberty” and away from countering actual persecution – chiefly of Christians at the hands of communist regimes (mainly in the past) and Muslim militants (now).



How the US Swindled Russia in the Early 1990s

Por • 20 dic, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Due to a historic data-dump on December 10th, the biggest swindle that occurred in the 20th Century (or perhaps ever) is now proven as a historical fact; and this swindle was done by the US Government, against the Government and people of Russia, and it continues today and keeps getting worse under every US President. It was secretly started by US President George Herbert Walker Bush on the night of 24 February 1990; and, unless it becomes publicly recognized and repudiated so that it can stop, a nuclear war between the US and all of NATO on one side, versus Russia on the other, is inevitable unless Russia capitulates before then, which would be vastly less likely than such a world-ending nuclear war now is.



The balance of growth and risk in population dynamics

Por • 11 dic, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Essential to each other, growth and exploration are jointly observed in populations, be it alive such as animals and cells or inanimate such as goods and money. But their ability to move, crucial to cope with uncertainty and optimize returns, is tempered by the space/time properties of the environment. We investigate how the environment shape optimal growth and population distribution in such conditions. We uncover a trade-off between risks and returns by revisiting a common growth model over general graphs. Our results reveal a rich and nuanced picture: fruitful strategies commonly lead to risky positions, but this tension may nonetheless be alleviated by the geometry of the explored space. The applicability of our conclusions is subsequently illustrated over an empirical study of financial data.