Hemeroteca de la sección ‘sociologia’

Explaining Parochialism: A Causal Account for Political Polarization in Changing Economic Environments

Por • 19 ago, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Political and social polarization are a significant cause of conflict and poor governance in many societies, thus understanding their causes is of considerable importance. Here we demonstrate that shifts in socialization strategy similar to political polarization and/or identity politics could be a constructive response to periods of apparent economic decline. We start from the observation that economies, like ecologies are seldom at equilibrium. Rather, they often suffer both negative and positive shocks. We show that even where in an expanding economy, interacting with diverse out-groups can afford benefits through innovation and exploration, if that economy contracts, a strategy of seeking homogeneous groups can be important to maintaining individual solvency.

Probabilistic Causal Analysis of Social Influence

Por • 9 ago, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Mastering the dynamics of social influence requires separating, in a database of information propagation traces, the genuine causal processes from temporal correlation, homophily and other spurious causes. However, most of the studies to characterize social influence and, in general, most data-science analyses focus on correlations, statistical independence, conditional independence etc.; only recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in “causal data science”, e.g., grounded on causality theories. In this paper we adopt a principled causal approach to the analysis of social influence from information-propagation data, rooted in probabilistic causal theory. Our approach develops around two phases. In the first step, in order to avoid the pitfalls of misinterpreting causation when the data spans a mixture of several subtypes (“Simpson’s paradox”), we partition the set of propagation traces in groups, in such a way that each group is as less contradictory as possible in terms of the hierarchical structure of information propagation.

Definition and Properties of the Concept of Structure as a Methodical Tool in the Sciences of Man

Por • 6 ago, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Any scholar who is interested in the methodology and philosophy of science cannot but be struck by the high frequency of the term “structure” in the vocabulary of science during the last four decades. And he is likely to ask himself if that key-word of so many sciences studying distinct fields of reality, refers always to the same concept. He would also like to have a clear definition of a generally applicable, abstract concept of “structure”, which would leave alone the characteristics of particular objects of research and be restricted to a minimal number of axioms. He would like to know if he has the right to dispose of the concept of “structure” as it is defined in a particular branch of science, in order to apply it somewhereelse, in some other branch.

Complex Economic Activities Concentrate in Large Cities

Por • 28 jul, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Why do some economic activities agglomerate more than others? And, why does the agglomeration of some economic activities continue to increase despite recent developments in communication and transportation technologies? In this paper, we present evidence that complex economic activities concentrate more in large cities. We find this to be true for technologies, scientific publications, industries, and occupations. Using historical patent data, we show that the urban concentration of complex economic activities has been continuously increasing since 1850. These findings suggest that the increasing urban concentration of jobs and innovation might be a consequence of the growing complexity of the economy.

Entre el mito y la crítica: la memoria del 68 francés

Por • 21 jul, 2018 • Category: sociologia

El 68, más que entre la memoria y la historia, se debate entre el mito y la crítica. El mayo francés ha sido una fuente constante de discusión y proliferación de ideas, por lo que no resulta convincente la tesis reciente acerca de una historia oficial o consenso en torno a su significación, fabricado al filo de las conmemoraciones. Partiendo de la doble explosión de la palabra y la acción que supuso el movimiento, en este artículo se pretende profundizar en la cuestión del papel ejercido por los intelectuales en los años 68, antes y después del epicentro de mayo-junio. Desde esta perspectiva, será más fácil valorar hasta qué punto el debate intelectual sostenido por el ritual conmemorativo ha acabado construyendo una ideología o un pensamiento separado del movimiento y difuminador de sus principales contornos. O si, por el contrario, es posible concluir en torno al legado actual del 68, quintaesencia de su memoria.

Spatio-temporal variations in the urban rhythm: the travelling waves of crime

Por • 16 jul, 2018 • Category: sociologia

In the last decades, the notion that cities are in a state of equilibrium with a centralised organisation has given place to the viewpoint of cities in disequilibrium and organised from bottom to up. In this perspective, cities are evolving systems that exhibit emergent phenomena built from local decisions. While urban evolution promotes the emergence of positive social phenomena such as the formation of innovation hubs and the increase in cultural diversity, it also yields negative phenomena such as increases in criminal activity. Yet, we are still far from understanding the driving mechanisms of these phenomena. In particular, approaches to analyse urban phenomena are limited in scope by neglecting both temporal non-stationarity and spatial heterogeneity. In the case of criminal activity, we know for more than one century that crime peaks during specific times of the year, but the literature still fails to characterise the mobility of crime.

Evolution of urban scaling: evidence from Brazil

Por • 12 jul, 2018 • Category: sociologia

During the last years, the new science of cities has been established as a fertile quantitative approach to systematically understand the urban phenomena. One of its main pillars is the proposition that urban systems display universal scaling behavior regarding socioeconomic, infrastructural and individual needs variables. This paper discusses the extension of the universality proposition by testing it against a broad range of urban metrics in a developing country urban system. We present an exploration of the scaling exponents for over 60 variables for the Brazilian urban system. As Brazilian municipalities can deviate significantly from urban settlements, functional cities were selected based on a systematic density cut-off procedure and the scaling exponents were estimated for this new subset of cities. To validate our findings we compared the results for overlaying variables with other studies based on alternative methods. It was found that the analyzed socioeconomic variables follow a superlinear scaling relationship with the population size, and most of the infrastructure and individual needs variables follow expected sublinear and linear scaling, respectively.

Parallels between Iran’s Basij and the Chinese Communist Party

Por • 5 jul, 2018 • Category: sociologia

The Basij is not communist, of course, but I think you’ll find the Chinese Communist Party provides a very apt comparison in terms of structure, goal and societal application. I was not able to find a better comparison.Since 1979 Iran has followed China in so many ways, big and small – few of them are known or appreciated. For example, Iran is the only other nation which has also had an officially-titled, government-sponsored “Cultural Revolution” (1980-83). Iran and China have obviously come to an arrangement: China accepts that Iran is Islamic, yet also rock-solid modern revolutionaries they can rely on & who is actually capable of long-term planning; Iran looks the other way on the drinking, gambling and pork-eating. Iran and China have not only a 10-year plan worth $600 billion, they have a 25-year strategic plan. Conversely, Iran and the EU had just $20 billion in trade in 2017 and just $200 million with the US. Iran does not need Western technology when they get the same level from China, and China will always need oil.

Devenir y dinámicas moleculares Apuntes para una teoría de la sociedad alterativa Dinámicas sociales alterativas

Por • 26 jun, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Ahora bien, estas dos características intrínsecas de las sociedades humanas, la imaginación y la técnica, no podrían realizarse sin una tercera característica intrínseca, el lenguaje7 . No se puede decir que lo que diferencia a las sociedades humanas es la comunicación, pues no solamente las sociedades animales lo hacen, todos los organismos lo hacen, recurren a “códigos” sonoros y visuales. Lo que ocurre es que el lenguaje, como sistema de signos, la lengua, y como efectuación práctica, el habla, es una característica intrínseca de las sociedades humanas, así como pasa con las otras características intrínsecas. Son sociedades de lenguaje, organizadas por el lenguaje, atravesadas por el lenguaje; son sociedades que nombran el “mundo” y se nombran a sí mismas. Como dice Émilie Benveniste, nacemos en el lenguaje y desde él nombramos el “mundo”. Entonces la sociedad humana es una institución imaginaria, es una institución técnica y es una institución lingüística8 . No se puede decir que alguna de estas características intrínsecas sea preponderante, ni tampoco determinante; se trata de una complejidad interrelacionada e integrada.

China opta por el Marxismo: Xi Jinping

Por • 19 jun, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Al poner Xi en la agenda del debate mundial el proyecto de una nueva civilización post-capitalista, estremeció el control mundial de las mentes. El global soft power, el “poder suave global”, que parecía sólidamente eternizado en los mega-relatos de los ideólogos burgueses, resintió la Declaración de Beijing. El Fin de la Historia de Fukuyama”, refrito superficial de la Filosofía de la Historia de Hegel; el Choque de Civilizaciones de Huntington, vulgar protagonismo neocolonial occidental de un apologeta del genocidio estadounidense en Vietnam, quedan obsoletos. El dominio burgués de las mentes retorna, obligada por la dialéctica de la realidad, a las dos grandes narrativas manipuladoras seculares de la modernidad: el neoliberalismo y el socialdemocratísmo; reforzándolas para las mentes infantiles, por supuesto, con el oscurantismo religioso pre-moderno de los monoteísmos. Con la caída de la URSS, el monopolio del global soft power de la burguesía y del capitalismo parecía garantizado ad calendas graecas (para siempre). Y las deterministas premoniciones de la “dialéctica negativa” de Adorno y del “hombre unidimensional” de Marcuse parecían confirmarse. Todo esto, ya es pasado. Ahora, la primera potencia del mundo, conducida por el Partido Comunista de China, reintroduce el paradigma de una futura civilización no-crematística, racional y ética: la obra de Marx, evolucionada para el Siglo 21.