Hemeroteca de la sección ‘sociologia’

De mitologías monárquicas y republicanas

Por • 3 dic, 2018 • Category: sociologia

A propósito del debate sobre la forma de gobierno que generó la abdicación del rey Juan Carlos en favor de su hijo -un debate revelado de momento circunstancial, aun impulsado sobre la corriente de fondo que suscita el tema- el profesor Jon Juaristi nos presenta en este libro una penetrante reflexión sobre la monarquía española, que entronca con un examen de la evolución sociológica del país desde -al menos- los estertores del franquismo hasta 2014. Probablemente los más llamativo del texto radique en el contraste que implica proponer una teoría mítica sobre tal monarquía, levantada sobre una documentada hermenéutica histórica, al tiempo que se revisan los avatares y la legitimidad de un reinado -el de Juan Carlos- consumado en un contexto de profunda transformación social (en toda Europa): una crisis no equivalente pero sí análoga -y he aquí el enganche- a la que conlleva toda sucesión dinástica.

Marxismo y Ciudad. Una cuestión esencial no suficientemente destacada

Por • 28 nov, 2018 • Category: sociologia

En la formulación del materialismo histórico que es sobre todo lo que contiene La ideología Alemana, también publicada en 1845, es al mismo tiempo donde se encuentra una de las más relevantes aportaciones de Marx y Engels a los Estudios Urbanos. No es necesario adentrarse muchas páginas en la obra cuando la ciudad hace su aparición en la constante lucha de intereses que es su contradicción con el campo ¿Por qué hablar de una contradicción? La división entre el campo y la ciudad no es sólo técnica, sino que es la expresión de unos intereses divergentes que se manifiestan al ser organizados en base a unas clases sociales portadoras de estos intereses con sus respectivas instituciones. Para Marx y Engels, el devenir histórico de las sociedades humanas nace, pues, del conflicto dialéctico entre el campo y la ciudad, que en esta obra explican con detalle cómo se produce y que, de acuerdo con cómo se resuelva, puede dar como resultado un nuevo modo de producción.

“From Among Your Own Selves will Arise…”: Reflections on 2 Peter and Prophecy

Por • 13 nov, 2018 • Category: sociologia

In regards to potential threats to the church, some are very familiar with the quote, “We have far more to fear from within than from without.” It is what follows that brings me to my knees, “The unbelief indulged, the doubts expressed, the darkness cherished, encourage the presence of evil angels, and open the way for the accomplishment of Satan’s devices.” (SM1, 122).

Les positions épistémologiques de Gilles-Gaston Granger en sciences de l’homme

Por • 3 nov, 2018 • Category: sociologia

PHILOSOPHE, philosophe des sciences — et singulièrement des sciences de l’homme — , G. G. Granger est, en France, l’un de ceux qui, depuis de nombreuses années, travaillent avec le plus de rigueur à cerner les délicats problèmes épistémologiques posés par la « scientificité » propre aux sciences de l’homme et par ceux de leurs rapports avec la philosophie.

Probability and social science : methodologial relationships between the two approaches ?

Por • 31 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

This work examines in depth the methodological relationships that probability and statistics have maintained with the social sciences. It covers both the history of thought and current methods. First, it examines in detail the history of the different paradigms and axioms for probability, from their emergence in the seventeenth century up to the most recent developments of the three major concepts: objective, subjective and logicist probability. It shows the statistical inference they permit, different applications to social sciences and the main problems they encounter. In the other side, from social sciences—particularly population sciences— to probability, it shows the different uses they made of probabilistic concepts during their history, from the seventeenth century, according to their paradigms: cross-sectional, longitudinal, event-history, hierarchical, contextual and multilevel approaches. While the ties may have seemed loose at times, they have more often been very close: some advances in probability were driven by the search for answers to questions raised by the social sciences; conversely, the latter have made progress thanks to advances in probability.

Redefining Revolutions

Por • 30 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

In their account of theory change in logic, Aberdein and Read distinguish ‘glorious’ from ‘inglorious’ revolutions–only the former preserves all ‘the key components of a theory’ [1]. A widespread view, expressed in these terms, is that empirical science characteristically exhibits inglorious revolutions but that revolutions in mathematics are at most glorious [2]. Here are three possible responses: 0. Accept that empirical science and mathematics are methodologically discontinuous; 1. Argue that mathematics can exhibit inglorious revolutions; 2. Deny that inglorious revolutions are characteristic of science. Where Aberdein and Read take option 1, option 2 is preferred by Mizrahi [3]. This paper seeks to resolve this disagreement through consideration of some putative mathematical revolutions.

How fear of future outcomes affects social dynamics

Por • 15 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a “carrot and stick” approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., “radicals”) openly renounce benevolence. Although more tolerant insiders maintain some level of benevolence, they may also tacitly support radicals out of fear for the future.

Link Prediction Adversarial Attack

Por • 12 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Deep neural network has shown remarkable performance in solving computer vision and some graph evolved tasks, such as node classification and link prediction. However, the vulnerability of deep model has also been revealed by carefully designed adversarial examples generated by various adversarial attack methods. With the wider application of deep model in complex network analysis, in this paper we define and formulate the link prediction adversarial attack problem and put forward a novel iterative gradient attack (IGA) based on the gradient information in trained graph auto-encoder (GAE). To our best knowledge, it is the first time link prediction adversarial attack problem is defined and attack method is brought up. Not surprisingly, GAE was easily fooled by adversarial network with only a few links perturbed on the clean network.

The hidden traits of endemic illiteracy in cities

Por • 2 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

In spite of the considerable progress towards reducing illiteracy rates, many countries, including developed ones, have encountered difficulty achieving further reduction in these rates. This is worrying because illiteracy has been related to numerous health, social, and economic problems. Here, we show that the spatial patterns of illiteracy in urban systems have several features analogous to the spread of diseases such as dengue and obesity. Our results reveal that illiteracy rates are spatially long-range correlated, displaying non-trivial clustering structures characterized by percolation-like transitions and fractality.

Mobile mathematical environments: current state and development prospects

Por • 25 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

The formation and development of the human person is most influenced by the environment in which it lives, studies, works. Therefore, the problem of the creation of such a high-tech information and communication educational and scientific environment, in which the student is on a daily basis during the whole period of study at univeristy, which should meet the needs of the information society, to the modern level, is an important and topical problem of both theoretical and practical nature, science, technology and world educational standards, and to promote the level of information and communication training and the formation of professional competencies. An example of such an information and communication educational and scientific environment for the teaching of mathematical subjects of university students is a web-oriented mathematical environment.