Hemeroteca de la sección ‘sociologia’

A more loyal PLA rebuffs the heresy of separating the Party and military

Por • 24 jun, 2017 • Category: sociologia

The PLA’s flagship newspaper, the PLA Daily, has published several articles in the past few months reaffirming the military’s strong will to follow the core of the Party’s central committee. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, Chinese President and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, the country’s top military authority, was endorsed as the “core” of the CPC central committee in October last year. Calls for the “nationalization of the army,” which mostly came from those who wish to see fundamental changes in China’s political system, have tapered off recently. Many high-ranking military officials and PLA publications have openly refuted those voices, saying their proposition is simply an attempt to create distance between the military and the Party. Peng Guangqian, a major general and a strategist at the Academy of Military Sciences, agreed. He said that “Some individual servicemen might attempt to command the Party and push the Party out to make way for themselves, which is absolutely not allowed and they must be eliminated from the army.” “These people actually want to seize the control of ‘the knife’ from the Party and undermine its leadership,” Peng argued. “We should learn the lessons from the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the Communist Party gave up its leadership over the army.”



Uncertainty in Economic Growth and Inequality

Por • 25 may, 2017 • Category: sociologia

A step to consilience, starting with a deconstruction of the causality of uncertainty that is embedded in the fundamentals of growth and inequality, following a construction of aggregation laws that disclose the invariance principle across heterogeneous individuals, ending with a reconstruction of metric models that yields deeper structural connections via U.S. GDP and income data.



Scaling evidence of the homothetic nature of cities

Por • 11 may, 2017 • Category: sociologia

In this paper we analyse the profile of land use and population density with respect to the distance to the city centre for the European city. In addition to providing the radial population density and soil-sealing profiles for a large set of cities, we demonstrate a remarkable constancy of the profiles across city size. Our analysis combines the GMES/Copernicus Urban Atlas 2006 land use database at 5m resolution for 300 European cities with more than 100.000 inhabitants and the Geostat population grid at 1km resolution. Population is allocated proportionally to surface and weighted by soil sealing and density classes of the Urban Atlas. We analyse the profile of each artificial land use and population with distance to the town hall. In line with earlier literature, we confirm the strong monocentricity of the European city and the negative exponential curve for population density. Moreover, we find that land use curves, in particular the share of housing and roads, scale along the two horizontal dimensions with the square root of city population, while population curves scale in three dimensions with the cubic root of city population. In short, European cities of different sizes are homothetic in terms of land use and population density.



Lo justo lo es por naturaleza, no por convención: Los argumentos estoicos en contra de la esclavitud y la doctrina de la οἰκείωσις.

Por • 28 abr, 2017 • Category: sociologia

En este ensayo se argumenta que la tesis estoica de la igualdad natural entre los seres humanos presupone una reconsideración radical de la noción de naturaleza, probablemente inspirada en el sofista Antifonte. Aunque los estoicos parecen considerar el naturalismo antifonteo, centrado en las facultades corpóreas, y reconocen la distinción clásica ‘convencional-natural’ aplicada a la diferencia entre griegos y bárbaros, desarrollan la tesis de la igualdad de naturaleza en dirección de una teoría de la justicia y la ley natural que supera la identidad de naturaleza entendida como necesidad corpórea. El autor sostiene que ese desarrollo se funda en la tesis estoica de la familiaridad.



El golpismo se viste de blanco: Insurrecciones Navales contra la naciente democracia venezolana

Por • 17 abr, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Empero, como prueba fehaciente del nulo (decir reducido luce insuficiente y por ende inapropiado a la luz de la evidencia histórica) profesionalismo alcanzado por la fuerza armada venezolana en el tiempo en que se cuenta su efectiva existencia, los anteriores esquemas teóricos fueron rotos en más de una oportunidad, al punto que unidades y numerarios de la armada y la aviación siempre han estado entre los más activos oponentes al sistema democrático liberal representativo implantado a partir de 1958. En los párrafos subsiguientes se analizan los más representativos alzamientos militares escenificados contra la naciente democracia en los cuales el protagonismo principal recayó en la marina de guerra. Concretamente se abordará lo ocurrido en este sentido entre 1959 y 1964, lapso de tiempo durante el cual transcurrió el primer período gubernamental resulta de las elecciones universales, secretas y directas realizadas luego del derrocamiento de la dictadura encabezada por el general Marcos Pérez Jiménez.



A quantum dynamic belief model to explain the interference effects of categorization on decision making

Por • 8 abr, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Categorization is necessary for many decision making tasks. However, the categorization process may interfere the decision making result and the law of total probability can be violated in some situations. To predict the interference effect of categorization, some model based on quantum probability has been proposed. In this paper, a new quantum dynamic belief (QDB) model is proposed. Considering the precise decision may not be made during the process, the concept of uncertainty is introduced in our model to simulate real human thinking process. Then the interference effect categorization can be predicted by handling the uncertain information. The proposed model is applied to a categorization decision-making experiment to explain the interference effect of categorization. Compared with other models, our model is relatively more succinct and the result shows the correctness and effectiveness of our model.



Quantum Probabilities as Behavioral Probabilities

Por • 19 mar, 2017 • Category: sociologia

We demonstrate that behavioral probabilities of human decision makers share many common features with quantum probabilities. This does not imply that humans are some quantum objects, but just shows that the mathematics of quantum theory is applicable to the description of human decision making. The applicability of quantum rules for describing decision making is connected with the nontrivial process of making decisions in the case of composite prospects under uncertainty. Such a process involves deliberations of a decision maker when making a choice. In addition to the evaluation of the utilities of considered prospects, real decision makers also appreciate their respective attractiveness. Therefore, human choice is not based solely on the utility of prospects, but includes the necessity of resolving the utility-attraction duality. In order to justify that human consciousness really functions similarly to the rules of quantum theory, we develop an approach defining human behavioral probabilities as the probabilities determined by quantum rules.



La Nova Scientia: Rewriting the History of Operational Research

Por • 17 mar, 2017 • Category: sociologia

The accepted lore is that Operational Research traces its roots back to the First and Second World Wars, when scientific research was used to improve military operations. In this essay we provide a different perspective on the origins of Operational Research by arguing that these are deeply intertwined with the impressive technological advances in Western Europe between the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries.



Estados Unidos y el fin de lo lúdico

Por • 9 mar, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Lo que ahora deseo sostener es que la democracia estadounidense ha venido perdiendo de forma acelerada el sentido de lo lúdico, enfrascándose en una creciente confrontación existencial que está alcanzando estos tiempos su punto culminante, de impredecibles pero con seguridad muy negativas consecuencias. En síntesis, para la izquierda político-cultural estadounidense e internacional, la victoria de Trump no ha sido asumida como una derrota política, sino como un evento que tuerce lo que Obama (hegeliano de nuevo cuño) denomina “el curso correcto de la Historia”, como un trauma escatológico que ofende los designios divinos. Por lo tanto, no hay acomodo posible con una realidad que es vista como una grieta en el orden cósmico, un inaceptable insulto que exige una respuesta existencial, carente de matices y negada a cualquier tentación conciliadora.



The network concept of creativity and deep thinking. Applications to social opinion formation and talent support

Por • 27 feb, 2017 • Category: sociologia

Our century has unprecedented new challenges, which need creative solutions and deep thinking. Contemplative, deep thinking became an “endangered species” in our rushing world of Tweets, elevator pitches and fast decisions. Here we describe that important aspects of both creativity and deep thinking can be understood as network phenomena of conceptual and social networks. “Creative nodes” occupy highly dynamic, boundary spanning positions in social networks. Creative thinking requires alternating plasticity-dominated and rigidity-dominated mindsets, which can be helped by dynamically changing social network structures. In the closing section we present three case studies which demonstrate the applications of the concept in the Hungarian research student movement, the Hungarian Templeton Program and the Youth Platform of the European Talent Support Network.