Hemeroteca de la sección ‘sociologia’

How fear of future outcomes affects social dynamics

Por • 15 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a “carrot and stick” approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., “radicals”) openly renounce benevolence. Although more tolerant insiders maintain some level of benevolence, they may also tacitly support radicals out of fear for the future.



Link Prediction Adversarial Attack

Por • 12 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Deep neural network has shown remarkable performance in solving computer vision and some graph evolved tasks, such as node classification and link prediction. However, the vulnerability of deep model has also been revealed by carefully designed adversarial examples generated by various adversarial attack methods. With the wider application of deep model in complex network analysis, in this paper we define and formulate the link prediction adversarial attack problem and put forward a novel iterative gradient attack (IGA) based on the gradient information in trained graph auto-encoder (GAE). To our best knowledge, it is the first time link prediction adversarial attack problem is defined and attack method is brought up. Not surprisingly, GAE was easily fooled by adversarial network with only a few links perturbed on the clean network.



The hidden traits of endemic illiteracy in cities

Por • 2 oct, 2018 • Category: sociologia

In spite of the considerable progress towards reducing illiteracy rates, many countries, including developed ones, have encountered difficulty achieving further reduction in these rates. This is worrying because illiteracy has been related to numerous health, social, and economic problems. Here, we show that the spatial patterns of illiteracy in urban systems have several features analogous to the spread of diseases such as dengue and obesity. Our results reveal that illiteracy rates are spatially long-range correlated, displaying non-trivial clustering structures characterized by percolation-like transitions and fractality.



Mobile mathematical environments: current state and development prospects

Por • 25 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

The formation and development of the human person is most influenced by the environment in which it lives, studies, works. Therefore, the problem of the creation of such a high-tech information and communication educational and scientific environment, in which the student is on a daily basis during the whole period of study at univeristy, which should meet the needs of the information society, to the modern level, is an important and topical problem of both theoretical and practical nature, science, technology and world educational standards, and to promote the level of information and communication training and the formation of professional competencies. An example of such an information and communication educational and scientific environment for the teaching of mathematical subjects of university students is a web-oriented mathematical environment.



China- Venezuela

Por • 24 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

La reciente visita del Presidente Maduro a China pone en evidencia que la relación entre ambos países,cada día se fortalece y profundiza, tanto en lo económico, financiero y político. La base de esa relación, son nuestros recursos naturales con los que cuenta nuestra Nación. Venezuela tiene algo que China carece “ el petróleo”. Es el petróleo como arma de negociación con China. Ya Hugo Chávez, abrió las puertas con el país asiático para iniciar el acceso comercial y financiero con China. Se creó el Fondo Chino, con el fin de monetizar nuestro petróleo, a través de préstamos con pago de petróleo a futuro. Estos préstamos han sido para financiar proyectos diversos presentados por el gobierno nacional tanto en infraestructura como en el sector de los hidrocarburos. El Fondo Chino es repagado a China, con el suministro de más de 300.000 barriles diarios. Venezuela ha venido pagando sus obligaciones asumidas, en el marco de un fondo rotativo, con características favorables para el país, puesto que el precio del petróleo es el internacional y monetizan nuestro petróleo anticipadamente…



Hillary Clinton pidió luchar para evitar el fin de la democracia en EEUU. “Trump no la está garantizando”

Por • 21 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

La excandidata presidencial de Estados Unidos, Hillary Clinton, fustigó la gestión del presidente Donald Trump y alertó que “nuestras instituciones y tradiciones democráticas están bajo asedio“. Precisó que hay cinco frentes que han asaltado en esa nación, los cuales son: El asalto al Estado de Derecho, el ataque a la “legitimidad” de las elecciones, “la guerra” que Trump “contra la verdad y la razón” poniendo así de relieve las mentiras que el mandatario ha contado en los últimos meses y los ataques a la prensa y el abuso de poder, conflictos de intereses y “flagrantes violaciones” de las reglas de la ética.



Retrato de Joseph Fouché por Stefan Zweig

Por • 15 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

Stefan Zweig no escribió una biografía, como tal, de Napoleón Bonaparte. El escritor austriaco -a mi juicio, el más notable biógrafo que han dado las letras universales- no dedicó una monografía explícita a uno de los héroes (en el sentido que Thomas Carlyle aplica al término «héroe») más renombrados de todos los tiempos, una figura esencial, ese experto en revolucionar el curso de la historia. No quiere decirse con esto que Zweig ignorase en su obra personaje tan extraordinario, tan fuera de lo común. Ocurre que la Revolución Francesa y Napoleón, como dos hitos históricos que son, sí los trató a fondo, aunque no directamente. Lo hizo a través de un protagonista aparentemente de segunda fila, un oscuro actor de reparto, pero que, no obstante, interpretó un papel capital en el siglo XIX. Hablamos de Joseph Fouché.



The story of conflict and cooperation

Por • 10 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

The story of conflict and cooperation has started millions of years ago, and now it is everywhere: In biology, computer science, economics, humanities, law, philosophy, political science, and psychology. Wars, airline alliances, trade, oligopolistic cartels, evolution of species and genes, and team sports are examples of games of conflict and cooperation. However, Nash (1951)’s noncooperative games – in which each player acts independently without collaboration with any of the others – has become the dominant ideology in economics, game theory, and related fields. A simple falsification of this noncooperative theory is scientific publication: It is a rather competitive game, yet collaboration is widespread.



BAM-100: la industria petrolera zuliana y la batalla de Inglaterra. Espíritu y energía

Por • 3 sep, 2018 • Category: sociologia

La industria petrolera venezolana y, en especial, la producción proveniente de la Cuenca de Maracaibo, en ese entonces una de las cuencas más ricas y prolíficas del mundo, fueron una de las principales suplidoras petroleras de los Aliados en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, sobre todo de Gran Bretaña. De hecho, mi amigo Brian McBeth, el autor del clásico Juan Vicente Gomez and the Oil Companies in Venezuela (1908-1935), dice que para 1939, un año antes de la Batalla de Inglaterra, el petróleo venezolano tenía un 49% de participación en el mercado británico. También dice que, en preparación de la entrada de Gran Bretaña en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, los estrategas militares estimaron que el petróleo venezolano surtiría toda la demanda civil y el 44% de la demanda militar durante la guerra.



Supremacy by Accelerated Warfare through the Comprehension Barrier and Beyond: Reaching the Zero Domain and Cyberspace Singularity

Por • 22 ago, 2018 • Category: sociologia

It is questionable and even unlikely that cyber supremacy could be reached by overwhelming capabilities manifested by stacking more technical capacity and adding attack vectors. The alternative is to use time as the vehicle to supremacy by accelerating the velocity of the engagements beyond the speed at which the enemy can target, and precisely execute and comprehend the events unfolding. The space created beyond the adversary’s comprehension is called the Zero Domain. Military traditionally sees the battle space as land, sea, air, space, and cyber domains. When fighting the battle beyond the adversary’s comprehension, no traditional warfighting domain serves as a battle space; it is not a vacuum nor an unclaimed terra nullius, but instead the Zero Domain. In the Zero Domain, cyberspace superiority surfaces as the outfall of the accelerated time and a digital space-separated singularity that benefit the more-rapid actor.