Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (nlin.AO)’

Analysis of communities in a mythological social network

Por • 15 jun, 2013 • Category: sociologia

The intriguing nature of classical Homeric narratives has always fascinated the occidental culture contributing to philosophy, history, mythology and straight forwardly to literature. However what would be so intriguing about Homer’s narratives’ At a first gaze we shall recognize the very literal appeal and aesthetic pleasure presented on every page across Homer’s chants in Odyssey and rhapsodies in Iliad. Secondly we may perceive a biased aspect of its stories contents, varying from real-historical to fictional-mythological. To encompass this glance, there are some new archeological finding that supports historicity of some events described within Iliad, and consequently to Odyssey. Considering these observations and using complex network theory concepts, we managed to built and analyze a social network gathered across the classical epic, Odyssey of Homer. Longing for further understanding, topological quantities were collected in order to classify its social network qualitatively into real or fictional. It turns out that most of the found properties belong to real social networks besides assortativity and giant component’s size.

Introduction: The FuturICT Knowledge Accelerator Towards a More Resilient and Sustainable Future

Por • 8 abr, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The FuturICT project is a response to the European Flagship Call in the Area of Future and Emerging Technologies, which is planning to spend 1 billion EUR on each of two flagship projects over a period of 10 years. FuturICT seeks to create an open, global but decentralized, democratically controlled information platform that will use online data and real-time measurements together with novel theoretical models and experimental methods to achieve a paradigm shift in our understanding of today’s strongly interdependent and complex world and make our techno-socio-economic systems more flexible, adaptive, resilient, sustainable, and livable through a participatory approach.

Information and Computation

Por • 7 abr, 2013 • Category: Opinion

In this chapter, concepts related to information and computation are reviewed in the context of human computation. A brief introduction to information theory and different types of computation is given. Two examples of human computation systems, online social networks and Wikipedia, are used to illustrate how these can be described and compared in terms of information and computation.

The hypothesis of urban scaling: formalization, implications and challenges

Por • 29 ene, 2013 • Category: sociologia

There is strong expectation that cities, across time, culture and level of development, share much in common in terms of their form and function. Recently, attempts to formalize mathematically these expectations have led to the hypothesis of urban scaling, namely that certain properties of all cities change, on average, with their size in predictable scale-invariant ways. The emergence of these scaling relations depends on a few general properties of cities as social networks, co-located in space and time, that conceivably apply to a wide range of human settlements. Here, we discuss the present evidence for the hypothesis of urban scaling, some of the methodological issues dealing with proxy measurements and units of analysis and place these findings in the context of other theories of cities and urban systems. We show that a large body of evidence about the scaling properties of cities indicates, in analogy to other complex systems, that they cannot be treated as extensive systems and discuss the consequences of these results for an emerging statistical theory of cities.

Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: A review

Por • 13 ene, 2013 • Category: sociologia

Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and nonliving matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proven valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organisation in evolutionary games. Here we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory.

Risk Mathematics and Quantum Games on Quantum Risk Structures – A Nuclear War Scenario Game

Por • 1 dic, 2012 • Category: sociologia

Quantum game theory is combined with risk mathematics’ formalism to provide an approach to evolutionary scenario analysis. The formalism is addressed in its general form and is then applied to an extreme risks modelling case, to model a coevolving dynamical web of systemic situations representing the evolution of the regional tensions between two countries with nuclear weapons. The model’s results are addressed regarding the potential for regional nuclear conflict to take place, and how evolutionary scenario analysis may contribute to nuclear war threat assessment and dynamical risk analysis. A final discussion is provided in what regards risk mathematics based on the evolutionary approach to risk assessement resulting from the combination of quantum game theory, morphic web representations and scenario analysis.

Universities Scale Like Cities

Por • 23 nov, 2012 • Category: sociologia

Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact.

Dynamical Diagnosis and Solutions for Resilient Natural and Social Systems

Por • 12 nov, 2012 • Category: Opinion

The concept of resilience embodies the quest towards the ability to sustain shocks, to suffer from these shocks as little as possible, for the shortest time possible, and to recover with the full functionalities that existed before the perturbation. We propose an operation definition of resilience, seeing it as a measure of stress that is complementary to the risk measures. Emphasis is put on the distinction between stressors (the forces acting on the system) and stress (the internal reaction of the system to the stressors). This allows us to elaborate a classification of stress measures and of the possible responses to stressors.

Equalitarian Societies are Economically Impossible

Por • 10 oct, 2012 • Category: Economía

The inequality of wealth distribution is a universal phenomenon in the civilized nations, and it is often imputed to the Matthew effect, that is, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Some philosophers unjustified this phenomenon and tried to put the human civilization upon the evenness of wealth. Noticing the facts that 1) the emergence of the centralism is the starting point of human civilization, i.e., people in a society were organized hierarchically, 2) the inequality of wealth emerges simultaneously, this paper proposes a wealth distribution model based on the hidden tree structure from the viewpoint of complex network. This model considers the organized structure of people in a society as a hidden tree, and the cooperation among human beings as the transactions on the hidden tree, thereby explains the distribution of wealth. This model shows that the scale-free phenomenon of wealth distribution can be produced by the cascade controlling of human society, that is, the inequality of wealth can parasitize in the social organizations, such that any actions in eliminating the unequal wealth distribution would lead to the destroy of social or economic structures, resulting in the collapse of the economic system, therefore, would fail in vain.

Complexity and Information: Measuring Emergence, Self-organization, and Homeostasis at Multiple Scales

Por • 15 may, 2012 • Category: Filosofía

Concepts used in the scientific study of complex systems have become so widespread that their use and abuse has led to ambiguity and confusion in their meaning. In this paper we use information theory to provide abstract and concise measures of complexity, emergence, self-organization, and homeostasis. The purpose is to clarify the meaning of these concepts with the aid of the proposed formal measures. In a simplified version of the measures (focussing on the information produced by a system), emergence becomes the opposite of self-organization, while complexity represents their balance. We use computational experiments on random Boolean networks and elementary cellular automata to illustrate our measures at multiple scales.