## Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI)’

#### Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning, NMR’2000

Por • 20 mar, 2014 • Category: Ambiente

The papers gathered in this collection were presented at the 8th International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning, NMR2000. The series was started by John McCarthy in 1978. The first international NMR workshop was held at Mohonk Mountain House, New Paltz, New York in June, 1984, and was organized by Ray Reiter and Bonnie Webber. In the last 10 years the area of nonmonotonic reasoning has seen a number of important developments. Significant theoretical advances were made in the understanding of general abstract principles underlying nonmonotonicity. Key results on the expressibility and computational complexity of nonmonotonic logics were established. The role of nonmonotonic reasoning in belief revision, abduction, reasoning about action, planing and uncertainty was further clarified.

#### Learning Lambek grammars from proof frames

Por • 3 oct, 2013 • Category: Educacion

In addition to their limpid interface with semantics, categorial grammars enjoy another important property: learnability. This was first noticed by Buskowsky and Penn and further studied by Kanazawa, for Bar-Hillel categorial grammars. What about Lambek categorial grammars? In a previous paper we showed that product free Lambek grammars where learnable from structured sentences, the structures being incomplete natural deductions. These grammars were shown to be unlearnable from strings by Foret and Le Nir. In the present paper we show that Lambek grammars, possibly with product, are learnable from proof frames that are incomplete proof nets. After a short reminder on grammatical inference \`a la Gold, we provide an algorithm that learns Lambek grammars with product from proof frames and we prove its convergence. We do so for 1-valued also known as rigid Lambek grammars with product, since standard techniques can extend our result to $k$-valued grammars. Because of the correspondence between cut-free proof nets and normal natural deductions, our initial result on product free Lambek grammars can be recovered.

#### How hard is it to control an election by breaking ties?

Por • 29 abr, 2013 • Category: sociologia

We study the computational complexity of the problem of controlling the result of an election by breaking ties. When the chair is only asked to break ties to choose between one of the co-winners, the problem is trivially easy. However, in multi-round elections like STV, we prove that it can be NP-hard for the chair to compute how to break ties to ensure a given result. Our results contain several surprises. For example, whilst it is NP-hard to compute a manipulating vote for a multi-round rule like Nanson, it is polynomial for the chair to control the result by breaking ties. As a second example, it can be NP-hard to control an election by breaking ties even with a simple two-stage voting rule.

#### Logical Fuzzy Preferences

Por • 20 abr, 2013 • Category: Crítica

We present a unified logical framework for representing and reasoning about both quantitative and qualitative preferences in fuzzy answer set programming, called fuzzy answer set optimization programs. The proposed framework is vital to allow defining quantitative preferences over the possible outcomes of qualitative preferences. We show the application of fuzzy answer set optimization programs to the course scheduling with fuzzy preferences problem. To the best of our knowledge, this development is the first to consider a logical framework for reasoning about quantitative preferences, in general, and reasoning about both quantitative and qualitative preferences in particular.

#### Efficient Inference on Generalized Fault Diagrams

Por • 15 abr, 2013 • Category: Crítica

The generalized fault diagram, a data structure for failure analysis based on the influence diagram, is defined. Unlike the fault tree, this structure allows for dependence among the basic events and replicated logical elements. A heuristic procedure is developed for efficient processing of these structures.

#### Causality in concurrent systems

Por • 12 mar, 2013 • Category: Crítica

Concurrent systems identify systems, either software, hardware or even biological systems, that are characterized by sets of independent actions that can be executed in any order or simultaneously. Computer scientists resort to a causal terminology to describe and analyse the relations between the actions in these systems. However, a thorough discussion about the meaning of causality in such a context has not been developed yet. This paper aims to fill the gap. First, the paper analyses the notion of causation in concurrent systems and attempts to build bridges with the existing philosophical literature, highlighting similarities and divergences between them. Second, the paper analyses the use of counterfactual reasoning in ex-post analysis in concurrent systems (i.e. execution trace analysis).
arXiv:1303.1384v1 [cs.DC]

#### LT^2C^2: A language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity

Por • 9 mar, 2013 • Category: Opinion

Our setting leads to a Kolmogorov complexity function relative to LT^2C^2 which is computable in polynomial time, and it also induces a prediction algorithm in the spirit of Solomonoff’s inductive inference theory. We then prove the efficacy of this language by investigating regularities in strings produced by participants attempting to generate random strings. Participants had a profound understanding of randomness and hence avoided typical misconceptions such as exaggerating the number of alternations. We reasoned that remaining regularities would express the algorithmic nature of human thoughts, revealed in the form of specific patterns. Kolmogorov complexity relative to LT^2C^2 passed three expected tests examined here: 1) human sequences were less complex than control PRNG sequences, 2) human sequences were not stationary, showing decreasing values of complexity resulting from fatigue, 3) each individual showed traces of algorithmic stability since fitting of partial sequences was more effective to predict subsequent sequences than average fits. This work extends on previous efforts to combine notions of Kolmogorov complexity theory and algorithmic information theory to psychology

#### Foreword: A Computable Universe, Understanding Computation and Exploring Nature As Computation

Por • 30 may, 2012 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

I am most honoured to have the privilege to present the Foreword to this fascinating and wonderfully varied collection of contributions, concerning the nature of computation and of its deep connection with the operation of those basic laws, known or yet unknown, governing the universe in which we live. Fundamentally deep questions are indeed being grappled with here, and the fact that we find so many different viewpoints is something to be expected, since, in truth, we know little about the foundational nature and origins of these basic laws, despite the immense precision that we so often find revealed in them. Accordingly, it is not surprising that within the viewpoints expressed here is some unabashed speculation, occasionally bordering on just partially justified guesswork, while elsewhere we find a good deal of precise reasoning, some in the form of rigorous mathematical theorems. Both of these are as should be, for without some inspired guesswork we cannot have new ideas as to where look in order to make genuinely new progress, and without precise mathematical reasoning, no less than in precise observation, we cannot know when we are right — or, more usually, when we are wrong

#### A Game-Theoretic Model Motivated by the DARPA Network Challenge

Por • 12 may, 2012 • Category: sociologia

In this paper we propose a game-theoretic model to analyze events similar to the 2009 \emph{DARPA Network Challenge}, which was organized by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for exploring the roles that the Internet and social networks play in incentivizing wide-area collaborations. The challenge was to form a group that would be the first to find the locations of ten moored weather balloons across the United States. We consider a model in which $N$ people are located in the space with a fixed coverage volume around each person’s geographical location, and these people can join together to form groups. A balloon is placed in the space and a group wins if it is the first one to report the location of the balloon. A larger team has a higher probability of finding the balloon, but the prize money is divided equally among the team members and hence there is a competing tension to keep teams as small as possible. We analyze this model under a natural set of utilities, and under the assumption that the players are \emph{risk averse}.