Artículos con la etiqueta ‘comercio internacional’

Rich-cores in networks

Por • 20 feb, 2014 • Category: sociologia

The notion of a «rich-club» describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. Interestingly, the definition of a rich-club naturally emphasizes high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Our approach theoretically couples the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker, and a rich-core is defined by examining changes in the associated persistence probability. The method is fast and scalable to large networks. In particular, we successfully show that the evolution of the core in \emph{C. elegans} and World Trade networks correspond to key development stages and responses to historical events respectively.



El gran canal de Nicaragua o el enigma chino

Por • 28 ene, 2014 • Category: Internacionales

La idea de construir un canal interoceánico a través de Nicaragua, similar al Canal de Panamá, solo que más profundo y más ancho, ha inspirado a los nicaragüenses durante décadas. Ha habido numerosos problemas para la realización de esta idea, aunque el principal obstáculo ha sido el sabotaje de parte de Estados Unidos para quien la implementación de proyectos de gran escala en un país gobernado por Sandinistas es completamente inaceptable.



The Great Nicaraguan Canal, or the Chinese puzzle for America

Por • 23 ene, 2014 • Category: Internacionales

The idea of building an interoceanic canal through Nicaragua, similar to the Panama Canal but deeper and wider, has inspired the Nicaraguans for decades. There have been a number of obstacles to the realisation of this idea, but the main obstacle has been sabotage by the US, for whom the implementation of large-scale projects in a country ruled by Sandinistas is completely unacceptable.



Hierarchicality of Trade Flow Networks Reveals Complexity of Products

Por • 16 ene, 2014 • Category: Economía

With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which currently amount to at least 36 trillion dollars. Interestingly, approximately 30-60 percent of global exports consist of intermediate products. Therefore, the trade flow network of a particular product with high added values can be regarded as a value chain. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products based on their unique flow network structure. This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent η can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains.



El mito de la especialización

Por • 2 ene, 2014 • Category: Ambiente

Una de esas ideas es que las ciudades, las regiones y los países deben especializarse. Como no pueden ser buenos en todo, deben concentrarse en lo que son mejores, esto es, en sus ventajas comparativas. Deben hacer muy bien unas pocas cosas e intercambiarlas por otras que son producidas mejor en otros lugares, aprovechando así los beneficios del comercio. Pero, así como algunas ideas son intuitivas u obvias, también pueden ser incorrectas y peligrosas. Como ocurre a menudo, no es lo que no sabemos, sino lo que erróneamente creemos que sabemos, lo que nos perjudica. La idea de que las ciudades y los países en realidad sí se especializan, y que por lo tanto deben especializarse, es una de esas ideas muy equivocadas y peligrosas.



A new world order and China’s key role

Por • 2 nov, 2013 • Category: Economía

Friedrich List, in his National System of Political Economy (1841), asserted that political economy as espoused in England at that time, far from being a valid science universally, was merely British national opinion, suited only to English historical conditions. List’s institutional school of economics asserted that the doctrine of free trade was devised to keep England rich and powerful at the expense of its trading partners and that it had to be fought with protective tariffs and other devices of economic nationalism by the weaker countries. List’s economic nationalism influenced Asian leaders, including Sun Yat-sen of China, who proposed industrial policies financed with sovereign credit. List was also the influence behind the Meiji Reform Movement of 1868 in Japan. Alexander Hamilton, by proposing the US Treasury using tax revenue to assume and pay off all public debts incurred by the Confederation in his 1791 Report on Public Debt, through the establishment of a national bank, provided the new nation with sovereign credit in the form of paper money for development. China, as the largest economy in the Asia-Pacific region, and potentially the largest in the world, has a key role to play in shaping this new world economic order. To do that, China must look beyond its current myopic effort to join a collapsing global export market economy and provide a model of national development in which foreign trade is reassigned to its proper place in the economy from its current all-consuming priority. The first step in that direction is for China to free itself from dollar hegemony and embark on a domestic development program with sovereign credit.



China’s reform hands fail to clap

Por • 26 may, 2013 • Category: Política

Xi stated: The wholesale negation of the history of the Soviet Union and the CPSU, the negation of Lenin and Stalin … spawned historical nihilism and the confusion of thoughts… Various levels of party organizations [in the USSR] almost lost all their functions.Last January, Xi put forward his now-famous theory that the party should «not differentiate [post-1949 CCP] history into the pre-reform period and the post-reform period … While socialism with Chinese characters was initiated during the period of the reform and open door, this [creed] was established on the basis of more than 20 years of [socialist] construction [after 1949],» he said, «These two periods should not be [arbitrarily] cut off one from the other-and one period should not be used to negate the other.» That Li, who is China’s first «PhD prime minister», seems serious about reform is attested by the fact that some inchoate moves are afoot to tackle ingrained malpractices, particularly the monopolistic privileges enjoyed by the yangqi-many of which are run by either princelings (kin of party elders) or current and former senior cadres. For example, individual yangqi’s taxes and other contributions to state coffers will likely be increased by 10% this year. On a deeper level, irreconcilable contradictions persist between the economic goal of nurturing the marketplace and the political imperative of consolidating the CCP’s hold on power. For instance, senior cadres and princelings, including Xi, have a vested interest for personal as well as ideological reasons in perpetuating the special powers of vouchsafed SOE groupings in sectors ranging from banking and energy to telecommunications and aerospace. The political sensitivities associated with such control make challenging the status quo difficult if not impossible.



Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

Por • 30 ene, 2013 • Category: Economía

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole.



The Food Crises: The US Drought

Por • 12 oct, 2012 • Category: Ambiente

Recent droughts in the midwestern United States threaten to cause global catastrophe driven by a speculator amplified food price bubble. Here we show the effect of speculators on food prices using a validated quantitative model that accurately describes historical food prices. During the last six years, high and fluctuating food prices have lead to widespread hunger and social unrest. While a relative dip in food prices occurred during the spring of 2012, a massive drought in the American Midwest in June and July threatens to trigger another crisis. In a previous paper, we constructed a model that quantitatively agreed with food prices and demonstrated that, while the behavior could not be explained by supply and demand economics, it could be parsimoniously and accurately described by a model which included both the conversion of corn into ethanol and speculator trend following.



Modeling the International-Trade Network: A Gravity Approach

Por • 14 dic, 2011 • Category: Opinion

This paper investigates whether the gravity model (GM) can explain the statistical properties of the International Trade Network (ITN). We fit data on international-trade flows with a GM specification using alternative fitting techniques and we employ GM estimates to build a weighted predicted ITN, whose topological properties are compared to observed ones. Furthermore, we propose an estimation strategy to predict the binary ITN with a GM. We find that the GM successfully replicates the weighted-network structure of the ITN, only if one fixes its binary architecture equal to the observed one. Conversely, the GM performs very badly when asked to predict the presence of a link, or the level of the trade flow it carries, whenever the binary structure must be simultaneously estimated.