Artículos con la etiqueta ‘concepto de Masa’

The hidden symmetry and Mr. Higgs!

Por • 12 ene, 2014 • Category: Educacion

Written in non-technical language, this review article explains the significance of the Higgs field and the associated Higgs boson in High-Energy Physics. The connection of symmetry with particle interactions and their unification is also discussed in this context. The presentation is informal and physical concepts are demonstrated through metaphors from everyday experience.



God and Physics: From Hawking to Avicenna

Por • 3 jun, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

The twin pillars of every civilization are religion and science. Contemporary cosmological theories, especially discourse about the origins of the universe, reveal the continuing encounter between physics and theology. It is a discourse which interests thinkers of our own age as much as it did those in the Middle Ages. I should like to sketch some of the current discussion in order to suggest how the contemporary world can learn a great deal from mediaeval analyses of the relationship among physics, metaphysics, and theology. In fact, to go from Stephen Hawking to Avicenna is, in an important sense, to go from confusion to clarity. Recent studies in particle physics and astronomy have produced dazzling speculations about the early history of the universe. Cosmologists now routinely entertain elaborate scenarios which propose to describe what the universe was like when it was the size of a softball, a mere 10-35 second after the Big Bang. The description of the emergence of four fundamental forces and twelve discrete subatomic particles is almost a common-place in modern physics. There is little doubt among scientists that we live in the aftermath of a giant explosion which occurred around 15 billion years ago — give or take a few billion.



Philosophical perspectives on ad hoc-hypotheses and the Higgs mechanism

Por • 26 may, 2013 • Category: Filosofía

We examine physicists’ charge of adhocness against the Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of «ad hoc», it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and principles which are well-founded elements of the scientific practice of high-energy particle physics. Based on our findings, we dispute the claim made by Christopher Hunt in a recent article in «Philosophy of Science» that the use of «ad hoc» by scientists reflects nothing more substantial than a judgment made on the basis of their «individual aesthetic senses». We further evaluate the implications of the recent discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider for the charge of adhocness against the Higgs mechanism.



From old to new particles: a simple symmetry is guiding us

Por • 5 ene, 2013 • Category: Leyes

There exists one experimental result that cannot be explained by the Standard Model (SM), the current theoretical framework for particle physics: non-zero masses for the neutrinos (elementary particles travelling close to light speed, electrically neutral and weakly interacting). The SM erroneously assumes that they are massless. Therefore, particle physicists are now exploring new physics beyond the SM. There is strong anticipation that we are about to unravel it, in the form of new matter and/or forces, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently running at CERN. We discuss a minimal extension of the SM, based on a somewhat larger version of its symmetry structure and particle content, that can naturally explain the existence of neutrino masses while also predicting novel signals accessible at the LHC, including a light Higgs boson, as evidenced by current data.



On the concepts of vacuum and mass and the search for higgs

Por • 9 dic, 2012 • Category: Leyes

Abstract: Some recollections on the recent history of the concepts of vacuum and mass and the search for higgs. According to the widely spread terminology the Higgs field permeates vacuum and serves as the origin of masses of all fundamental particles including the Higgs Boson — the higgs.



Origins of Mass

Por • 14 jul, 2012 • Category: Leyes

Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries – specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ($W$ and $Z$ bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive (i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of $W$ and $Z$ boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle.