Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Cosmología cuantica’

The World as a Hologram

Por • 27 jun, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

According to ‘t Hooft the combination of quantum mechanics and gravity requires the three dimensional world to be an image of data that can be stored on a two dimensional projection much like a holographic image. The two dimensional description only requires one discrete degree of freedom per Planck area and yet it is rich enough to describe all three dimensional phenomena. After outlining ‘t Hooft’s proposal I give a preliminary informal description of how it may be implemented. One finds a basic requirement that particles must grow in size as their momenta are increased far above the Planck scale. The consequences for high energy particle collisions are described. The phenomena of particle growth with momentum was previously discussed in the context of string theory and was related to information spreading near black hole horizons. The considerations of this paper indicate that the effect is much more rapid at all but the earliest times. In fact the rate of spreading is found to saturate the bound from causality.



Is a tabletop search for Planck scale signals feasible?

Por • 28 ene, 2013 • Category: Educacion

Quantum gravity theory is untested experimentally. Could it be tested with tabletop experiments? While the common feeling is pessimistic, a detailed inquiry shows it possible to sidestep the onerous requirement of localization of a probe on Planck length scale. I suggest a tabletop experiment which, given state of the art ultrahigh vacuum and cryogenic technology, could already be sensitive enough to detect Planck scale signals. The experiment combines a single photon’s degree of freedom with one of a macroscopic probe to test Wheeler’s conception of “quantum foam”, the assertion that on length scales of the order Planck’s, spacetime is no longer a smooth manifold. The scheme makes few assumptions beyond energy and momentum conservations, and is not based on a specific quantum gravity scheme.



In search of lost spacetime: philosophical issues arising in quantum gravity

Por • 21 jul, 2012 • Category: Filosofía

This essay presents an accessible introduction to the basic motivations to seek a quantum theory of gravity. It focuses on one approach- loop quantum gravity – as an example of the rich philosophical issues that arise when we try to combine spacetime and quantum physics.



Emergence of time in quantum gravity: is time necessarily flowing ?

Por • 4 may, 2012 • Category: Ambiente

We discuss the emergence of time in quantum gravity, and ask whether time is always “something that flows”‘. We first recall that this is indeed the case in both relativity and quantum mechanics, although in very different manners: time flows geometrically in relativity (i.e. as a flow of proper time in the four dimensional space-time), time flows abstractly in quantum mechanics (i.e. as a flow in the space of observables of the system). We then ask the same question in quantum gravity, in the light of the thermal time hypothesis of Connes and Rovelli. The latter proposes to answer the question of time in quantum gravity (or at least one of its many aspects), by postulating that time is a state dependent notion. This means that one is able to make a notion of time-as-an-abstract-flow – that we call the thermal time – emerge from the knowledge of both: 1) the algebra of observables of the physical system under investigation, 2) a state of thermal equilibrium of this system. Formally, this thermal time is similar to the abstract flow of time in quantum mechanics, but we show in various examples that it may have a concrete implementation either as a geometrical flow, or as a geometrical flow combined with a non-geometric action. This indicates that in quantum gravity, time may well still be “something that flows” at some abstract algebraic level, but this does not necessarily imply that time is always and only “something that flows” at the geometric level.



Gauge Theory of Gravity and Spacetime

Por • 23 abr, 2012 • Category: Crítica

The advent of general relativity settled it once and for all that a theory of spacetime is inextricably linked to the theory of gravity. From the point of view of the gauge principle of Weyl and Yang-Mills-Utiyama, it became manifest around the 1960s (Sciama–Kibble) that gravity is closely related to the Poincare group acting in Minkowski space. The gauging of this external group induces a Riemann-Cartan geometry on spacetime. If one generalizes the gauge group of gravity, one finds still more involved spacetime geometries. If one specializes it to the translation group, one finds a specific Riemann-Cartan geometry with teleparallelism (Weitzenbock geometry).



On the Meaning of General Covariance and the Relevance of Observers in General Relativity

Por • 9 dic, 2011 • Category: Educacion

Since the appearance of General Relativity, its intrinsec general covariance has been very often misinterpreted as implying that physically meaningful quantitities (and conclusions extracted from the theory) have to be absolutely independent on observers. This incorrect point of view is sometimes expressed by discarding the very concept of observer in the structure and applications of the theory. As we shall stress in this essay, through some examples, the concept of observer is as essential to General Relativity as it is to any physical theory.



The Riddle of Gravitation

Por • 9 dic, 2011 • Category: Opinion

There is no doubt that both the special and general theories of relativity capture the imagination. The anti-intuitive properties of the special theory of relativity and its deep philosophical implications, the bizzare and dazzling predictions of the general theory of relativity: the curvature of spacetime, the exotic characteristics of black holes, the bewildering prospects of gravitational waves, the discovery of astronomical objects as quasers and pulsers, the expansion and the (possible) recontraction of the universe…, are all breathtaking phenomena. In this paper, we give a philosophical non-technical treatment of both the special and the general theory of relativity together with an exposition of some of the latest physical theories. We then give an outline of an axiomatic approach to relativity theories due to Andreka and Nemeti that throws light on the logical structure of both theories. This is followed by an exposition of some of the bewildering results established by Andreka and Nemeti concerning the foundations of mathematics using the notion of relativistic computers. We next give a survey on the meaning and philosophical implications of the the quantum theory and end the paper by an imaginary debate between Einstein and Neils Bohr reflecting both Einstein’s and Bohr’s philosophical views on the quantum world.