Artículos con la etiqueta ‘difusión de novedades’

Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

Por • 14 sep, 2013 • Category: Leyes

In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely.



India fails test of ‘knowledge economy’

Por • 1 dic, 2012 • Category: Internacionales

There are few signs that US dominance in the knowledge economy will wane, thanks in no small part to its open-door policy for Chinese and Indian researchers and innovators. According to a recent study in Nature magazine, 17% of the scientists in the US are Chinese and another 12% are Indians. It is quite probable that these Indians have a higher research output than India-based scientists. The skills crisis among India’s young population is in large part due to pervasive shortages of qualified faculty. In a recent interview, Shyam Sunder (Yale School of Management) observed that: «Our best brains are selling soaps and getting into civil service» but «we are not able to attract them to a sector that is most important to us – education – particularly higher education.» As a result, even prestigious institutions – like the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management – are facing a shortage of qualified faculty. As higher education undergoes further expansion, these shortages can only mount.



Transformation Networks: How Innovation and the Availability of Technology can Increase Economic Performance

Por • 31 dic, 2011 • Category: sociologia

A transformation network describes how one set of resources can be transformed into another via technological processes. Transformation networks in economics are useful because they can highlight areas for future innovations, both in terms of new products, new production techniques, or better efficiency. They also make it easy to detect areas where an economy might be fragile. In this paper, we use computational simulations to investigate how the density of a transformation network affects the economic performance, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP), of an artificial economy. Our results show that on average, the GDP of our economy increases as the density of the transformation network increases. We also find that while the average performance increases, the maximum possible performance decreases and the minimum possible performance increases.



Non-Conservative Diffusion and its Application to Social Network Analysis

Por • 2 mar, 2011 • Category: sociologia

We argue that unlike a random walk, which conserves the quantity diffusing on a network, many interesting social phenomena, such as the spread of information or disease on a social network, are fundamentally non-conservative.