Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Dynamical Systems (math.DS);’

Are Deterministic Descriptions And Indeterministic Descriptions Observationally Equivalent?

Por • 14 oct, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The central question of this paper is: are deterministic and indeterministic descriptions observationally equivalent in the sense that they give the same predictions? I tackle this question for measure-theoretic deterministic systems and stochastic processes, both of which are ubiquitous in science. I first show that for many measure-theoretic deterministic systems there is a stochastic process which is observationally equivalent to the deterministic system. Conversely, I show that for all stochastic processes there is a measure-theoretic deterministic system which is observationally equivalent to the stochastic process. Still, one might guess that the measure-theoretic deterministic systems which are observationally equivalent to stochastic processes used in science do not include any deterministic systems used in science. I argue that this is not so because deterministic systems used in science even give rise to Bernoulli processes. Despite this, one might guess that measure-theoretic deterministic systems used in science cannot give the same predictions at every observation level as stochastic processes used in science. By proving results in ergodic theory, I show that also this guess is misguided: there are several deterministic systems used in science which give the same predictions at every observation level as Markov processes. All these results show that measure-theoretic deterministic systems and stochastic processes are observationally equivalent more often than one might perhaps expect. Furthermore, I criticise the claims of the previous philosophy papers Suppes (1993, 1999), Suppes and de Barros (1996) and Winnie (1998) on observational equivalence.



On the Observational Equivalence of Continuous-Time Deterministic and Indeterministic Descriptions

Por • 10 oct, 2013 • Category: Filosofía

This paper presents and philosophically assesses three types of results on the observational equivalence of continuous-time measure-theoretic deterministic and indeterministic descriptions. The first results establish observational equivalence to abstract mathematical descriptions. The second results are stronger because they show observational equivalence between deterministic and indeterministic descriptions found in science. Here I also discuss Kolmogorov’s contribution. For the third results I introduce two new meanings of `observational equivalence at every observation level’. Then I show the even stronger result of observational equivalence at every (and not just some) observation level between deterministic and indeterministic descriptions found in science. These results imply the following. Suppose one wants to find out whether a phenomenon is best modeled as deterministic or indeterministic. Then one cannot appeal to differences in the probability distributions of deterministic and indeterministic descriptions found in science to argue that one of the descriptions is preferable because there is no such difference. Finally, I criticise the extant claims of philosophers and mathematicians on observational equivalence.



Justifying Definitions in Mathematics—Going Beyond Lakatos

Por • 9 oct, 2013 • Category: Educacion

This paper addresses the actual practice of justifying definitions in mathematics. First, I introduce the main account of this issue, namely Lakatos’s proof-generated definitions. Based on a case study of definitions of randomness in ergodic theory, I identify three other common ways of justifying definitions: natural-world-justification, condition-justification and redundancy-justification. Also, I clarify the interrelationships between the different kinds of justification. Finally, I point out how Lakatos’s ideas are limited: they fail to show that various kinds of justification can be found and can be reasonable, and they fail to acknowledge the interplay between the different kinds of justification.



What Are the New Implications of Chaos for Unpredictability?

Por • 9 oct, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

From the beginning of chaos research until today, the unpredictability of chaos has been a central theme. It is widely believed and claimed by philosophers, mathematicians and physicists alike that chaos has a new implication for unpredictability, meaning that chaotic systems are unpredictable in a way that other deterministic systems are not. Hence one might expect that the question ‘What are the new implications of chaos for unpredictability?’ has already been answered in a satisfactory way. However, this is not the case. I will critically evaluate the existing answers and argue that they do not fit the bill. Then I will approach this question by showing that chaos can be defined via mixing, which has not been explicitly argued for. Based on this insight, I will propose that the sought-after new implication of chaos for unpredictability is the following: for predicting any event all sufficiently past events are approximately probabilistically irrelevant.



Chaos Forgets and Remembers: Measuring Information Creation, Destruction, and Storage

Por • 1 oct, 2013 • Category: Filosofía

The hallmark of deterministic chaos is that it creates information—the rate being given by the Kolmogorov-Sinai metric entropy. Since its introduction half a century ago, the metric entropy has been used as a unitary quantity to measure a system’s intrinsic unpredictability. Here, we show that it naturally decomposes into two structurally meaningful components: A portion of the created information—the ephemeral information—is forgotten and a portion—the bound information—is remembered. The bound information is a new kind of intrinsic computation that differs fundamentally from information creation: it measures the rate of active information storage. We show that it can be directly and accurately calculated via symbolic dynamics, revealing a hitherto unknown richness in how dynamical systems compute.



When periodicities enforce aperiodicity

Por • 25 sep, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Aperiodic tilings are non-periodic tilings defined by local rules. They are widely used to model quasicrystals, and a central question is to understand which of the non-periodic tilings are actually aperiodic. Among tilings, those by rhombi can be easily seen as approximations of surfaces in higher dimensional spaces. In particular, those which approximate irrational planes are non-periodic. But which ones are also aperiodic? This paper introduces the notion of subperiod, which links algebraic properties of a plane with geometric properties of the tilings that approximate it. A necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for tilings that can be seen in the four dimensional Euclidean space. This result is then applied to some examples in higher codimensions, notably tilings with n-fold rotational symmetry



Dynamical systems and categories

Por • 3 ago, 2013 • Category: Crítica

We study questions motivated by results in the classical theory of dynamical systems in the context of triangulated and A-infinity categories. First, entropy is defined for exact endofunctors and computed in a variety of examples. In particular, the classical entropy of a pseudo-Anosov map is recovered from the induced functor on the Fukaya category. Second, the density of the set of phases of a Bridgeland stability condition is studied and a complete answer is given in the case of bounded derived categories of quivers. Certain exceptional pairs in triangulated categories, which we call Kronecker pairs, are used to construct stability conditions with density of phases. Some open questions and further directions are outlined as well



Double Exponential Instability of Triangular Arbitrage Systems

Por • 4 may, 2012 • Category: Economía

This paper investigates arbitrage chains involving d currencies and d foreign exchange trader-arbitrageurs. The commonly recognized belief in economics and finance is that arbitrage has the effect of causing prices in different markets to converge. This conjecture was recently disproved in Kozyakin et al. (2010); Cross et al. (2012), where was shown that for the case of four currencies arbitrage chains may be periodic or exponentially unstable. In contrast with the four-currency case, we find that arbitrage operations when d >= 5 currencies are present may appear very unstable, with the exchange rates growing in accordance with the double exponential law!