Artículos con la etiqueta ‘elecciones’

Asesinado Chávez, ¿Se acabó el Socialismo?

Por • 8 dic, 2013 • Category: Nacionales

Las clases sociales se forman por su proximidad a la renta. La calidad del reparto determinaba la calidad de un gobierno, si reparte con exuberancia es bueno, si recorta el reparto es malo, debe ser sustituido. De esta manera se construyó una sociedad rentista, caracterizada por una relación especial con el trabajo, con la relación esfuerzo-logro.



Universality in systems with group-outcome decision making

Por • 26 may, 2013 • Category: sociologia

Elections constitute a paradigm of decision making problems that have puzzled experts of different disciplines for decades. We study two decision making problems, where groups make decisions that only impact themselves as a group. In both studied cases, participation to local elections and the number of democratic representatives at different scales (from local to national), we observe a universal scaling with the constituency size. These results may be interpreted as constituencies having a hierarchical structure, where each group of N agents, at each level of the hierarchy, is divided in N^{1/3} subgroups. Following this interpretation, a phenomenological model of vote participation, where abstention is related to the perceived link of an agent to the rest of the constituency, reproduces quantitatively the observed data.



How hard is it to control an election by breaking ties?

Por • 29 abr, 2013 • Category: sociologia

We study the computational complexity of the problem of controlling the result of an election by breaking ties. When the chair is only asked to break ties to choose between one of the co-winners, the problem is trivially easy. However, in multi-round elections like STV, we prove that it can be NP-hard for the chair to compute how to break ties to ensure a given result. Our results contain several surprises. For example, whilst it is NP-hard to compute a manipulating vote for a multi-round rule like Nanson, it is polynomial for the chair to control the result by breaking ties. As a second example, it can be NP-hard to control an election by breaking ties even with a simple two-stage voting rule.



The drastic outcomes from voting alliances in three-party bottom-up democratic voting (1990 $\rightarrow$ 2013)

Por • 27 abr, 2013 • Category: sociologia

The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 \cite{psy} and 1990 \cite{lebo} to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in the journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big.



Consensus time and conformity in the adaptive voter model

Por • 20 abr, 2013 • Category: sociologia

Tim Rogers, Thilo Gross Abstract: The adaptive voter model is a paradigmatic model in the study of opinion formation. Here we propose an extension for this model, in which conflicts are resolved by obtaining another opinion, and analytically study the time required for consensus to emerge. Our results shed light on the rich phenomenology of […]



Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

Por • 12 dic, 2012 • Category: sociologia

Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.



Scaling laws and universality in the choice of election candidates

Por • 26 sep, 2011 • Category: sociologia

Nowadays there is an increasing interest of physicists in finding regularities related to social phenomena. This interest is clearly motivated by applications that a statistical mechanical description of the human behavior may have in our society. By using this framework, we address this work to cover an open question related to elections: the choice of elections candidates (candidature process). Our analysis reveals that, apart from the social motivations, this system displays features of traditional out-of-equilibrium physical phenomena such as scale-free statistics and universality.



US wants to clip Karzai’s wings

Por • 25 ene, 2011 • Category: Crítica

Close to half of the population consists of ethnic Pashtuns and yet 75% of parliamentary seats have been “won” by non-Pashtuns. The Hazaras constitute 10% of the population, but they “won” 20% of the seats, including in Pashtun-dominated regions.



Mayorías ficticias: Las causas de la desproporcionalidad en las elecciones parlamentarias 2010

Por • 9 oct, 2010 • Category: Leyes, Nacionales, Política, sociologia

A inicios del 2010, el Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE) presentó la totalidad de las
circunscripciones que se usarían en las elecciones parlamentarias del 26 de septiembre de
2010, en la que resaltan 8 entidades en las cuáles se modifican los circuitos electorales, bajo
las nuevas normativas; éstas son: Distrito Capital, Amazonas, Barinas, Carabobo, Lara,
Miranda, Táchira y Zulia. De estas entidades, resalta la aplicación de las nuevas reglas
(división de municipios en múltiples circuitos) en Carabobo, Lara, Miranda



La posibilidad de un golpe de la derecha tras los comicios legislativos en EEUU

Por • 8 sep, 2010 • Category: Opinion

Para escribir este artículo, no se necesitó ningún motivo especial, bastó abrir cualquier periódico estadounidense y ver que ahora sólo se habla de lo mismo.