Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Energía’

La renta petrolera captada internacionalmente: una idea conflictiva

Por • 10 feb, 2014 • Category: sociologia

En una entrevista para un programa de televisión en Maracaibo, Asdrúbal Baptista1 (2013) afirmó de manera contundente que el petróleo es un bien que no se produce, [pre-existe]. Mucho antes, en su conocida obra Teoría Económica del capitalismo rentístico (1997). Baptista había desarrollado en profundidad esa idea, precisando que el bien petróleo que yace en el subsuelo hace parte de los [medios de producción no producidos]. Con apoyo entre otras, en esta idea, Baptista introduce un concepto clave de su obra, [la renta de la tierra internacional], que es para él [un ingreso captado a través del intercambio con otras naciones, a cuenta de la propiedad nacional] sobre esos medios.



The hidden symmetry and Mr. Higgs!

Por • 12 ene, 2014 • Category: Educacion

Written in non-technical language, this review article explains the significance of the Higgs field and the associated Higgs boson in High-Energy Physics. The connection of symmetry with particle interactions and their unification is also discussed in this context. The presentation is informal and physical concepts are demonstrated through metaphors from everyday experience.



El petróleo brasileño y la desestabilización de Bolivia

Por • 16 nov, 2013 • Category: Internacionales

Analistas brasileños admiten que la estrategia del Pentágono consiste en ejercer presión sobre las fronteras de Brasil convirtiendo a sus vecinos en Estados fallidos, categoría en la que pueden colocar en el futuro a países como Bolivia, y quizá Argentina, Paraguay y hasta Uruguay con la excusa del tránsito de drogas (Defesanet, primero de noviembre). Estamos transitando un periodo de cambios que incluye convulsiones de todo tipo. Es necesario prepararnos para afrontarlas.



A Critical History of Renormalization

Por • 22 oct, 2013 • Category: Crítica

The history of renormalization is reviewed with a critical eye, starting with Lorentz’s theory of radiation damping, through perturbative QED with Dyson, Gell-Mann & Low, and others, to Wilson’s formulation and Polchinski’s functional equation, and applications to “triviality”, and dark energy in cosmology.



Ranking and mapping of universities and research-focused institutions worldwide based on highly-cited papers: A visualization of results from multi-level models

Por • 8 ago, 2013 • Category: sociologia

The web application presented in this paper allows for an analysis to reveal centres of excellence in different fields worldwide using publication and citation data. Only specific aspects of institutional performance are taken into account and other aspects such as teaching performance or societal impact of research are not considered. Based on data gathered from Scopus, field-specific excellence can be identified in institutions where highly-cited papers have been frequently published. The web application combines both a list of institutions ordered by different indicator values and a map with circles visualizing indicator values for geocoded institutions. Compared to the mapping and ranking approaches introduced hitherto, our underlying statistics (multi-level models) are analytically oriented by allowing (1) the estimation of values for the number of excellent papers for an institution which are statistically more appropriate than the observed values; (2) the calculation of confidence intervals as measures of accuracy for the institutional citation impact; (3) the comparison of a single institution with an “average” institution in a subject area, and (4) the direct comparison of at least two institutions.



World Energy: From the «Shale Revolution» to Healthy Pragmatism? (II)

Por • 17 jun, 2013 • Category: Economía

Most likely, the European Union would make concessions to Russia in such an important area for both sides as energy supplies if it weren’t for the position of the U.S. For Washington, isolating Russia as much as possible from energy markets is a question of strategy, as «dependence on energy producers is incompatible with a unipolar world and is a real threat to the status of the U.S. as the only superpower». It is no accident that such close attention is given to the so-called «Greater Middle East», where 62% of proven world oil resources and over 40% of gas are found, in the concept of the Pax Americana. [14] As Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Noam Chomsky writes, «the main goals of global domination which were formulated in the post-war era remain relevant to this day». Among these goals Chomsky names «keeping control over the main world energy sources». It is worth mentioning that as far back as 1945 the U.S. State Department declared energy resources to be «one of the most attractive trophies in world history».



World Energy: From the «Shale Revolution» to Healthy Pragmatism? (I)

Por • 12 jun, 2013 • Category: Economía

The leading European companies approach the problem of extracting shale gas critically, seeing in it an indirect ecological threat for the entire continent. The development of shale gas fields in North America led to a drastic breakdown of the energy system in Europe: the U.S. placed its bets on shale gas, which caused prices in the coal industry to drop; Europeans rushed to buy up the cheap coal, and Europe literally started «smoking». And the Americans themselves, after trying to become pioneers in shale gas extraction, are still cautious in evaluating prospects. Test drilling caused massive protests in the U.S., as the method of hydraulically fragmenting the shale (fracking) used in such cases is hazardous to groundwater and the atmosphere. In addition, leading companies and analytical institutes vary widely in their evaluations of the prospects of shale gas extraction in the U.S., which does not justify affirmations of a «shale revolution» either.



EU Changes Energy Policy

Por • 29 may, 2013 • Category: Economía

The publication of the management consultant A.T. Kearney’s report was evidently timed with the summit. The report said shale gas production in Europe is expected to come in full swing by 2017-2018. A.T. Kearney expects shale gas production in the region to reach 58 billion cubic meters by 2035, which is well over 12 percent of the total gas consumed by the EU in 2011. By that time the shale gas extraction in Europe should account for 45 percent of the total gas production in the region, with the exception of Norway. According to our view, the report is built on sand. The producers and state geological services (5) are confident that no production estimates could be made without adequate exploration including actual drilling. As is known, the plans to produce shale gas by ExxonMobil (in Poland and Hungary), Shell (Sweden). have been shelved. In Germany Wintershall and BNK have called back their exploration licenses. BNK has dropped its concessions in Thuringia, Germany. Previously it had planned to produce 10 billion cubic meters annually during 25-30 years (the total country’s production is around 11 billion cm). (6) The forecast figures for overall European shale gas production were overestimated in the US Energy Information Administration 2011 report.



A Model of Time

Por • 7 jul, 2012 • Category: Filosofía

Based on a mathematical model of quantum measurement we derive some properties of intuitive time.



Las guerras por la energía se calientan

Por • 12 may, 2012 • Category: Internacionales

El conflicto y la intriga por los suministros valiosos de energía han sido características del paisaje internacional desde hace mucho tiempo. En cada década desde la Primera Guerra mundial se han librado grandes guerras por el petróleo y han estallado enfrentamientos más pequeños cada pocos años; un estallido o dos en 2012, entonces, formarían parte de una situación normal. En su lugar, vemos ahora todo un cúmulo de choques relacionados con el petróleo que se propagan por todo el globo, involucrando a una docena de países, y cada vez aparecen más. Consideremos esos puntos de inflamación como señales de que entramos a una era de conflictos intensificados por la energía.