Artículos con la etiqueta ‘evolución’

Multidisciplinary Cognitive Content of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Por • 4 abr, 2012 • Category: Crítica

This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanotechnology as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent terms. Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (1991-1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Cognitive content of research published in nano-only journals is closest to nano research published in condensed matter and applied physics journals.



Stephen Jay Gould’s Critique of Progress

Por • 18 feb, 2011 • Category: sociologia

Given human arrogance and the prevalence of progressivist ideology, it is commonly presumed that the emergence of Homo sapiens is the inevitable apex of evolutionary processes. Counter to this view, Gould argued that, although natural selection led to some degree of “progress” on short timescales in the limited sense that it dialectically adapted creatures to their environments, over longer scales of time there was no deterministic direction to the history of life. The fundamental importance of contingency in history was perhaps the most centrally important feature of Gould’s thinking.



Revisited human-worm relationships shed light on brain evolution

Por • 11 feb, 2011 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

An international team of researchers, including a neuroscientist from the University of Florida, has produced more evidence that people have a close evolutionary connection with tiny, flatworm-like organisms scientifically known as “Acoelomorphs.”



Evolutionary Mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world

Por • 7 feb, 2011 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines/traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change.



an Lagrangian Systems be Better than Hamiltonian Systems at Approximating Biological Evolution?

Por • 7 feb, 2011 • Category: Ambiente

Evolutionary processes and their major features have commonalities with a diverse range of physical phenomena. Models of fitness or adaptation currently used in theoretical biology are similar to Hamiltonian-based representations of dynamical systems in terms of inspiration and major assumptions.



For robust robots, let them be babies first

Por • 22 ene, 2011 • Category: sociologia

“it’s very hard to change a robot’s body,” Bongard says, “it’s much easier to change the programming inside its head.”