Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Filosofía’

La diferencia entre lógicas y el cambio de significado de las conectivas: un enfoque categorista

Por • 24 mar, 2014 • Category: Opinion

En este artículo tratamos de hacer plausible la hipótesis de que las conectivas de diferentes lógicas no necesariamente difieren en significado. Utilizando el tratamiento categorista de las conectivas, argumentaremos contra la tesis quineana de que la diferencia de lógicas implica diferencia de significado entre sus conectivas, y ubicamos el cambio de tema en la diferencia de objetos más bien que en una tal diferencia de significado. Finalmente, intentamos mostrar que ese tratamiento categorista es una forma de minimalismo semántico, de acuerdo con el cual no todos los elementos semánticos usuales son relevantes para determinar el significado de las conectivas.

Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Filosofía

We investigate the question of ‘why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time’, starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing — light as a geometric theory — and human touching — only ruled by Pauli’s exclusion principle — plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects — as they occur in smaller entities — appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities.

Brief history for the search and discovery of the Higgs particle – A personal perspective

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

In 1964, a new particle was proposed by several groups to answer the question of where the masses of elementary particles come from; this particle is usually referred to as the Higgs particle or the Higgs boson. In July 2012, this Higgs particle was finally found experimentally, a feat accomplished by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is the purpose of this review to give my personal perspective on a brief history of the experimental search for this particle since the ’80s and finally its discovery in 2012. Besides the early searches, those at the LEP collider at CERN, the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are described in some detail. This experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is often considered to be the most important advance in particle physics in the last half a century, and some of the possible implications are briefly discussed.

Present time

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

The idea of a moving present or `now’ seems to form part of our most basic beliefs about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. I show in this article that presentism, the doctrine that only what is present exists, is in conflict with modern relativistic cosmology and recent advances in neurosciences. I argue for a tenseless view of time, where what we call `the present’ is just an emergent secondary quality arising from the interaction of perceiving self-conscious individuals with their environment. I maintain that there is no flow of time, but just an ordered system of events.

On Strongly First-Order Dependencies

Por • 19 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

We prove that the expressive power of first-order logic with team semantics plus contradictory negation does not rise beyond that of first-order logic (with respect to sentences), and that the totality atoms of arity k +1 are not definable in terms of the totality atoms of arity k. We furthermore prove that all first-order nullary and unary dependencies are strongly first order, in the sense that they do not increase the expressive power of first order logic if added to it.

Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand’s Paradox

Por • 19 mar, 2014 • Category: Leyes

Bertrand’s paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace’s principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand’s paradox contains two different problems: an «easy» problem and a «hard» problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand’s question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace’s principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible «ways of selecting» an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization.

On the History of Geometrization of Space-time: From Minkowski to Finsler Geometry

Por • 18 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

e article is a tribute to Hermann Minkowski leading from his geometry of numbers to an attempt at using Finsler geometry for a break of Lorentz invariance.

¿What Is Given in Experience?

Por • 17 mar, 2014 • Category: Crítica

What makes Stengers’s book, Penser avec Whitehead—in English, “to think with Whitehead”—such an important work for Anglo-American philosophy is that in it the greatest philosopher of the twentieth century is finally studied in great detail by someone who is one of the most innovative philosophers of science of the present time. Now we finally have, in other words, after years of embarrassed commentaries in which people had eulogized Whitehead’s God and disparaged Whitehead’s science, a book in which Whitehead’s science and Whitehead’s God are each given their rightful place.

Verdad, creencia y convención en el poema de Parménides

Por • 17 mar, 2014 • Category: Opinion

Esta intervención trata de resumir las líneas generales de una nueva interpretación del conjunto de los fragmentos de Parménides, tomando pie de la relación entre forma poética y razonamiento lógico (I). Se sostiene, en particular, que el ‘ES’ de la diosa ha de entenderse en el sentido de una predicación de verdad necesaria, cuya negación (‘NO ES’) resulta contradictoria consigo misma (II), por lo cual ‘lo-que-ES’ ha de ser lo que es de modo eterno, perfecto e inmutable, mientras que las cosas de la realidad ordinaria no pueden ser lo que se supone que son más que “de nombre” (III); que el problema de la mal llamada dóxa sólo se resuelve con tal de distinguir la teoría física del poema –cuyo principio es la mezcla y unidad de los opuestos– de las engañosas creencias de los mortales en la rígida separación (lógica y física) de los términos opuestos (IV)…

The Early Years of Condensed Matter Physics at Illinois — in Celebration of the 80th Birth Year of Charles P. Slichter — Charlie Slichter & the gang at Urbana

Por • 15 mar, 2014 • Category: Opinion

The 1950s– and perhaps also the 1960s– were very special times for the development of solid-state/condensed-matter physics. The University of Illinois at Urbana was at the center of these activities. In areas like NMR and superconductivity, methods were developed which would form the basis for the next half century of science and technology. Experimentalists, including Charlie and John Wheatley, worked hand in hand with theorists, including the incomparable John Bardeen. They worked cooperatively to develop ideas, often born in Urbana, but with godparents at Harvard and Moscow and Paris. A characteristic style of broad collaboration and spirited exchange developed and spread from Illinois.