Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Filosofía’

Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

Por • 15 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi’s creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.



Restructuring Logic

Por • 12 mar, 2014 • Category: Filosofía

The outline of a programme for restructuring mathematical logic. We explain what we mean by «restructuring» and carry out exemplary parts of the programme



Reflections on Gibbs: From Statistical Physics to the Amistad

Por • 12 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

J. Willard Gibbs, the younger, was the first American physical sciences theorist. He was one of the inventors of statistical physics. He introduced and developed the concepts of phase space, phase transitions, and thermodynamic surfaces in a remarkably correct and elegant manner. These three concepts form the basis of different areas of physics. The connection among these areas has been a subject of deep reflection from Gibbs’ time to our own. This talk therefore tries to celebrate Gibbs by talking about modern ideas about how different parts of physics fit together.



Ya. B. Zeldovich (1914-1987): Chemist, Nuclear Physicist, Cosmologist

Por • 8 mar, 2014 • Category: Ambiente

Ya.B. Zeldovich was a pre-eminent Soviet physicist whose seminal contributions spanned many fields ranging from physical chemistry to nuclear and particle physics, and finally astrophysics and cosmology. March 8, 2014 marks Zeldovich’s birth centenary, and this article attempts to convey the zest with which Zeldovich did science, and the important role he played in fostering and mentoring a whole generation of talented Scientists.



Topos Semantics for Higher-Order Modal Logic

Por • 6 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

We define the notion of a model of higher-order modal logic in an arbitrary elementary topos E . In contrast to the well-known interpretation of (non-modal) higher-order logic, the type of propositions is not interpreted by the subobject classifier ΩE , but rather by a suitable complete Heyting algebra H . The canonical map relating H and ΩE both serves to interpret equality and provides a modal operator on H in the form of a comonad. Examples of such structures arise from surjective geometric morphisms f:F→E , where H=f∗ΩF . The logic differs from non-modal higher-order logic in that the principles of functional and propositional extensionality are no longer valid but may be replaced by modalized versions. The usual Kripke, neighborhood, and sheaf semantics for propositional and first-order modal logic are subsumed by this notion.



El problema del continuo en René Thom

Por • 3 mar, 2014 • Category: Filosofía

René Thom ha propuesto el concepto topológico de continuo como respuesta al concepto lógico de infinito. En este trabajo se mostrará que, frente a la definición combinatoria de conjunto infinito propuesta por Cantor, la definición porfiriana de continuo propuesta por Thom salva las paradojas de la teoría de conjuntos y comporta consecuencias ontológicas decisivas en el ámbito del mundo morfológico poniendo límites, por ejemplo, a la evolución ilimitadamente innovadora de Prigogine, etc.



Pathways of History of Elementary Particle Physics

Por • 1 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

In this first paper, we briefly retrace some historical pathways of modern physics of 20th Century. In particular, we have considered some moments of cosmic ray physics and, above all, the early theoretical and experimental bases which will lead to the first exact measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, one of the main high precision tests of QED.



Thermodynamical Phase transitions, the mean-field theories, and the renormalization (semi)group: A pedagogical introduction

Por • 1 mar, 2014 • Category: Leyes

Mean field theories are good qualitative descriptors of the phase transition behavior. But all mean-field theories (including Landau’s theory) fail at the critical point (the problem of large correlation length). The problems with large correlation length in quantum many-body systems are the hardest problems known in theoretical physics (both in condensed matter and in particle physics). It was Ken Wilson’s physical insights and his powerful mathematical skills that opened a way to the solution of such hard problems. This manuscript is a perspective on these issues. Starting with simple examples of phase transitions (like ice/water; diamond/graphite etc.) we address the following important questions: Why does non-analyticity (sharp phase transitions) arise when thermodynamical functions (i.e., free energies etc) are good analytic functions? How does Landau’s program unify all the previous mean-field theories? Why do all the mean-field theories fail near the critical point? How does Wilson’s program go beyond all the mean-field theories? What is the origin emergence and universality?



Posibilidad e imposibilidad de la fenomenología. La VI Investigación Lógica de E. Husserl …

Por • 28 feb, 2014 • Category: Opinion

En este trabajo se estudia la doctrina husserliana de la intuición categorial y se la evalúa desde dos perspectivas. Primero, se intenta comprender la necesidad de abordar el tema por parte de la fenomenología. En segundo lugar, se enfatiza la paradoja que implica esta doctrina respecto de la distinción clásica entre sensibilidad y entendimiento. Con esto, finalmente, se pretende determinar la importancia de la investigación fenomenológica respecto del problema del conocimiento y la experiencia.



Del Principio de Razón Suficiente de Leibniz, a la pragmática noción de Real Imposible de Ortega

Por • 28 feb, 2014 • Category: Crítica

A juicio de Ortega, o Adán nunca estuvo en Edén o Edén no era en forma alguna un «paraíso», puesto que la vida humana es problemática ab initio. El hombre nunca gozó de una armonía primordial perdida luego por la desobediencia a Dios. Según Ortega, el «paraíso» no está en el pasado sino en todo caso en el futuro; y no es un datum del cielo sino un esforzado factum del hombre. Habiendo abdicado del «optimismo» ontológico, el mérito de Ortega fue que gracias a la impronta pragmática de su pensamiento no incurrió en el pesimismo de los existencialistas ni en la inanidad de los nihilistas. Para ello, no obstante, hubo de vérselas con el consumado racionalismo ontológico de Leibniz y reemplazar el principio de «razónsuficiente» por el del «real imposible».