Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Física’

The changing concept of matter in H. Weyl’s thought, 1918 -1930

Por • 3 abr, 2014 • Category: Educacion

During the “long decade” of transformation of mathematical physics between 1915 and 1930, H. Weyl interacted with physics in two highly productive phases and contributed to it, among others, by his widely read book on Space – Time – Matter (Raum- Zeit – Materie), (1918-1923) and on Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics (Gruppentheorie und Quantenmechanik) (1928-1931). In this time Weyl’s understanding of the constitution of matter and its mathematical description changed considerably. At the beginning of the period he started from a “dynamistic” and geometrical conception of matter, following and extending the Mie-Hilbert approch, which he gave up during the year 1920. After transitional experiments with a singularity (and in this sense topological) approach in 1921/22, he developed an open perspective of what he called an “agency theory” of matter. The idea for it was formulated already before the advent of the “new” quantum mechanics in 1925/26.

On Quantum Conditional Probability

Por • 2 abr, 2014 • Category: Leyes

Argumentamos que la teoría cuántica no admite una generalización de la noción clásica de probabilidad condicionada. Mostramos que la probabilidad definida por la regla de Lüders, interpretada generalmente como la regla de condicionalización mecánico-cuántica, no puede ser interpretada como tal.

Innovations in Statistical Physics

Por • 29 mar, 2014 • Category: Leyes

In 1963-71, a group of people, myself included, formulated and perfected a new approach to physics problems, which eventually came to be known under the names of scaling, universality, and renormalization. This work formed the basis of a wide variety of theories ranging from its starting point in critical phenomena, and moving out to particle physics and relativity and then into economics and biology. This work was of transcendental beauty and of considerable intellectual importance.

Quantum Humeanism,or: physicalism without properties

Por • 27 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

In recent literature, it has become clear that quantum physics does not refute Humeanism. This point has so far been made with respect to Bohms quantum theory. Against this background, this paper seeks to achieve the following four results: to generalize the option of quantum Humeanism from Bohmian mechanics to primitive ontology theories in general, to show that this option applies also to classical mechanics, to establish that it requires a commitment to matter as primitive stuff, but no commitment to natural properties (physicalism without properties, to point out that by removing the commitment to properties, the stock metaphysical objections against Humeanism from quidditism and humility no longer apply. In that way, quantum physics strengthens Humeanism instead of refuting it.

Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

Por • 27 mar, 2014 • Category: sociologia

We read newspapers and watch TV every day. There are many issues and many controversies. Since media are free, we can hear arguments from every possible side. How do we decide what is wrong or right? The first condition to accept a message is to understand it; messages that are too sophisticated are ignored. So it seems reasonable to assume that our understanding depends on our ability and our current knowledge. Here we show that the consequences of this statement are surprising and funny.

The education of Walter Kohn and the creation of density functional theory

Por • 26 mar, 2014 • Category: Leyes

The theoretical solid-state physicist Walter Kohn was awarded one-half of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his mid-1960’s creation of an approach to the many-particle problem in quantum mechanics called density functional theory (DFT). In its exact form, DFT establishes that the total charge density of any system of electrons and nuclei provides all the information needed for a complete description of that system. This was a breakthrough for the study of atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, and solids. Before DFT, it was thought that only the vastly more complicated many-electron wave function was needed for a complete description of such systems. Today, fifty years after its introduction, DFT (in one of its approximate forms) is the method of choice used by most scientists to calculate the physical properties of materials of all kinds. In this paper, I present a biographical essay of Kohn’s educational experiences and professional career up to and including the creation of DFT.

Which factor dominates the industry evolution? A synergy analysis based on China’s ICT industry

Por • 22 mar, 2014 • Category: Economía

Industry evolution caused by various reasons, among which technology progress driving industry development has been approved, but with the new trend of industry convergence, inter-industry convergence also plays an increasing important role. We choose china’s listed ICT industry to make empirical analysis. Our main findings are: a) technology progress is the order parameter which dominates industry system evolution. Moreover, industry convergence is the control parameter which is influenced by technology progress; b) Development of technology progress is the core factor for causing evolution of industry system, and industry convergence is the outcome of technology progress; c) Especially, it is important that the dominated role of technology progress will be sustained, even though in the environment of convergence, companies also need focus on self-innovation, rather than only adapt to the new industry evolution trend.

Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Filosofía

We investigate the question of ‘why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time’, starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing — light as a geometric theory — and human touching — only ruled by Pauli’s exclusion principle — plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects — as they occur in smaller entities — appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities.

Brief history for the search and discovery of the Higgs particle – A personal perspective

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

In 1964, a new particle was proposed by several groups to answer the question of where the masses of elementary particles come from; this particle is usually referred to as the Higgs particle or the Higgs boson. In July 2012, this Higgs particle was finally found experimentally, a feat accomplished by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is the purpose of this review to give my personal perspective on a brief history of the experimental search for this particle since the ’80s and finally its discovery in 2012. Besides the early searches, those at the LEP collider at CERN, the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab, and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are described in some detail. This experimental discovery of the Higgs boson is often considered to be the most important advance in particle physics in the last half a century, and some of the possible implications are briefly discussed.

Present time

Por • 21 mar, 2014 • Category: Educacion

The idea of a moving present or `now’ seems to form part of our most basic beliefs about reality. Such a present, however, is not reflected in any of our theories of the physical world. I show in this article that presentism, the doctrine that only what is present exists, is in conflict with modern relativistic cosmology and recent advances in neurosciences. I argue for a tenseless view of time, where what we call `the present’ is just an emergent secondary quality arising from the interaction of perceiving self-conscious individuals with their environment. I maintain that there is no flow of time, but just an ordered system of events.