Artículos con la etiqueta ‘historia’

Lengua, historia y proceso filosófico en Grecia

Por • 23 dic, 2012 • Category: Filosofía

Tal vez lo que yo entiendo como Filología sea algo más amplio que lo que practican algunos de mis colegas universitarios, minuciosos y atrincherados en un especialismo a rajatabla. Tomo la palabra en un sentido amplio: el filólogo enseña a leer, despacio, atentamente, sonsacándoles todo el sabor adormilado en las palabras, unos textos venerables (subjetivamente venerables, por supuesto). «Filólogo quiere decir maestro de la lectura lenta», escribía el filólogo F. Niestzche en el prólogo a Aurora. Lector lento y evocador de unos seres del pasado con los que intenta trabar un diálogo imposible; como un practicante de la necromancia, el filólogo convoca los espíritus de los difuntos, y en el hoyo destinado a la sangre de las víctimas rituales, deja sólo, en homenaje, su tiempo.



The prediction of future from the past: an old problem from a modern perspective

Por • 1 nov, 2012 • Category: Educacion

The idea of predicting the future from the knowledge of the past is quite natural when dealing with systems whose equations of motion are not known. Such a long-standing issue is revisited in the light of modern ergodic theory of dynamical systems and becomes particularly interesting from a pedagogical perspective due to its close link with Poincar\’e’s recurrence. Using such a connection, a very general result of ergodic theory – Kac’s lemma – can be used to establish the intrinsic limitations to the possibility of predicting the future from the past. In spite of a naive expectation, predictability results to be hindered rather by the effective number of degrees of freedom of a system than by the presence of chaos. If the effective number of degrees of freedom becomes large enough, regardless the regular or chaotic nature of the system, predictions turn out to be practically impossible. The discussion of these issues is illustrated with the help of the numerical study of simple models.



Una mirada a la filosofía y sus nexos con el pensar venezolano

Por • 21 sep, 2012 • Category: Nacionales

Con este breve texto nos acercamos al quehacer filosófico venezolano con el fin de mostrar un mapa complejo y versátil, conocido por un pequeño grupo de especialistas, pero ignorado por muchos lectores, en especial si se trata de considerar los nexos que han existido entre la reflexión filosófica y diversos temas relacionados con el país. Destacamos, en primer lugar, el trabajo dedicado a algunos filósofos de la Colonia y a Andrés Bello. Ponemos luego, de relieve, la reivindicación de la filosofía política desde el siglo XIX. Seguidamente, el paso al siglo XX nos sirve para reseñar aspectos fundamentales de la exploración de nuestro positivismo. Ya entrado este siglo, mencionamos a algunos ensayistas filósofos que se preocuparon por la interpretación del país. Y en la segunda mitad de siglo, lo hacemos con filósofos destacados por su experiencia ensayística. De igual modo, nos referimos a los estudiosos de Kant, Hegel y a la tradición marxista, así como a la presencia del neopositivismo. Pasamos luego a exponer algunos tópicos a través de los cuales también se aprecia el nexo entre la reflexión filosófica y la necesidad de pensar el país. La educación, la comunicación y el ámbito jurídico son los temas escogidos para mostrar ese nexo.



A Biography of Henri Poincaré – 2012 Centenary of the Death of Poincaré

Por • 28 jul, 2012 • Category: sociologia

On January 4, 2012, the centenary of Henri Poincar\’e’s death, a colloquium was held in Nancy, France the subject of which was «Vers une biographie d’Henri Poincar\’e». Scholars discussed several approaches for writing a biography of Poincar\’e. In this paper I present a personal and scientific biographical sketch of Poincar\’e, which does not in any way reflect Poincar\’e’s rich personality and immense activity in science: When Poincar\’e traveled to parts of Europe, Africa and America, his companions noticed that he knew well everything from statistics to history and curious customs and habits of peoples. He was almost teaching everything in science. He was so encyclopedic that he dealt with the outstanding questions in the different branches of physics and mathematics; he had altered whole fields of science such as non-Euclidean geometry, Arithmetic, celestial mechanics, thermodynamics and kinetic theory, optics, electrodynamics, Maxwell’s theory, and other topics from the forefront of Fin de Si\`ecle physical science. It is interesting to note that as opposed to the prosperity of biographies and secondary papers studying the life and scientific contributions of Albert Einstein, one finds much less biographies and secondary sources discussing Poincar\’e’s life and work.



Newton vs. Leibniz: Intransparency vs. Inconsistency

Por • 17 mar, 2012 • Category: Ambiente

We investigate the structure common to causal theories that attempt to explain a (part of) the world. Causality implies conservation of identity, itself a far from simple notion. It imposes strong demands on the universalizing power of the theories concerned. These demands are often met by the introduction of a metalevel which encompasses the notions of ‘system’ and ‘lawful behaviour’. In classical mechanics, the division between universal and particular leaves its traces in the separate treatment of cinematics and dynamics. This analysis is applied to the mechanical theories of Newton and Leibniz, with some surprising results.



An Entropic Story

Por • 25 sep, 2011 • Category: Leyes

A pedagogical account of entropy and its history.



Stephen Jay Gould’s Critique of Progress

Por • 18 feb, 2011 • Category: sociologia

Given human arrogance and the prevalence of progressivist ideology, it is commonly presumed that the emergence of Homo sapiens is the inevitable apex of evolutionary processes. Counter to this view, Gould argued that, although natural selection led to some degree of “progress” on short timescales in the limited sense that it dialectically adapted creatures to their environments, over longer scales of time there was no deterministic direction to the history of life. The fundamental importance of contingency in history was perhaps the most centrally important feature of Gould’s thinking.



Mathematics and Economics of Leonid Kantorovich

Por • 29 ene, 2011 • Category: Economía

This is a short overview of the contribution of Leonid Kantorovich into the formation of the modern outlook on the interaction between mathematics and economics



Geometric Algebra: A natural representation of three-space

Por • 28 ene, 2011 • Category: matemática, Portada

Clifford’s geometric algebra developed in 1873, but largely overlooked by the science community, provides the simplest and most natural algebra for three-space and hence has general applicability to all fields of science and engineering.



For robust robots, let them be babies first

Por • 22 ene, 2011 • Category: sociologia

«it’s very hard to change a robot’s body,» Bongard says, «it’s much easier to change the programming inside its head.»