Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Libreria digital’

Science Fiction as a Worldwide Phenomenon: A Study of International Creation, Consumption and Dissemination

Por • 24 ago, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

This paper examines the international nature of science fiction. The focus of this research is to determine whether science fiction is primarily English speaking and Western or global; being created and consumed by people in non-Western, non-English speaking countries? Science fiction’s international presence was found in three ways, by network analysis, by examining a online retailer and with a survey. Condor, a program developed by GalaxyAdvisors was used to determine if science fiction is being talked about by non-English speakers. An analysis of the international websites was done to discover if it was being consumed worldwide. A survey was also conducted to see if people had experience with science fiction. All three research methods revealed similar results. Science fiction was found to be international, with science fiction creators originating in different countries and writing in a host of different languages. English and non-English science fiction was being created and consumed all over the world, not just in the English speaking West.

A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

Por • 13 abr, 2013 • Category: Educacion

The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a «quantity-quality diagram», and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

Relative Positions of Countries in the World of Science

Por • 10 abr, 2013 • Category: Economía

A novel picture of the relative positions of countries in the world of science is offered through application of a two-dimensional mapping method which is based on quantity and quality indicators of the scientific production as peer-reviewed articles. To obtain such indicators, different influential effects such as the background global trends, temporal fluctuations, disciplinary characteristics, and mainly, the effect of countries resources have been taken into account. Fifty countries with the highest scientific production are studied in twelve years (1996-2007). A common clustering algorithm is used to detect groups of co-evolving countries in the two-dimensional map, and thereby countries are classified into four major clusters based on their relative positions in the two-dimensional map.

Collective allocation of science funding: from funding agencies to scientific agency

Por • 6 abr, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

Public agencies like the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) award tens of billions of dollars in annual science funding. How can this money be distributed as efficiently as possible to best promote scientific innovation and productivity? The present system relies primarily on peer review of project proposals. In 2010 alone, NSF convened more than 15,000 scientists to review 55,542 proposals. Although considered the scientific gold standard, peer review requires significant overhead costs, and may be subject to biases, inconsistencies, and oversights. We investigate a class of funding models in which all participants receive an equal portion of yearly funding, but are then required to anonymously donate a fraction of their funding to peers.

Culturomics meets random fractal theory: Insights into long-range correlations of social and natural phenomena over the past two centuries

Por • 24 feb, 2012 • Category: sociologia

Culturomics was recently introduced as the application of high-throughput data collection and analysis to the study of human culture. Here we make use of this data by investigating fluctuations in yearly usage frequencies of specific words that describe social and natural phenomena, as derived from books that were published over the course of the past two centuries. We show that the determination of the Hurst parameter by means of fractal analysis provides fundamental insights into the nature of long-range correlations contained in the culturomic trajectories, and by doing so, offers new interpretations as to what might be the main driving forces behind the examined phenomena. Quite remarkably, we find that social and natural phenomena are governed by fundamentally different processes. While natural phenomena have properties that are typical for processes with persistent long-range correlations, social phenomena are better described as nonstationary, on-off intermittent, or Levy walk processes.