Artículos con la etiqueta ‘máquinas de conocimiento’

Future quantum computers with machine learning could attack larger sets of data than classical computers

Por • 1 ago, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

Seth Lloyd of MIT and his collaborators have developed a quantum version of machine learning — a type of AI in which programs can learn from previous experience to become progressively better at finding patterns in data. It would take advantage of quantum computations to speed up machine-learning tasks exponentially. Data can be split into groups — a task that is at the core of handwriting- and speech-recognition software — or can be searched for patterns. Massive amounts of information could therefore be manipulated with a relatively small number of qubits. “We could map the whole Universe — all of the information that has existed since the Big Bang — onto 300 qubits,” Lloyd says.

The Recomputation Manifesto

Por • 3 jun, 2013 • Category: Leyes

Replication of scientific experiments is critical to the advance of science. Unfortunately, the discipline of Computer Science has never treated replication seriously, even though computers are very good at doing the same thing over and over again. Not only are experiments rarely replicated, they are rarely even replicable in a meaningful way. Scientists are being encouraged to make their source code available, but this is only a small step. Even in the happy event that source code can be built and run successfully, running code is a long way away from being able to replicate the experiment that code was used for. I propose that the discipline of Computer Science must embrace replication of experiments as standard practice. I propose that the only credible technique to make experiments truly replicable is to provide copies of virtual machines in which the experiments are validated to run. I propose that tools and repositories should be made available to make this happen. I propose to be one of those who makes it happen.

Bayesian Optimization in a Billion Dimensions via Random Embeddings

Por • 13 ene, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

Bayesian optimization techniques have been successfully applied to robotics, planning, sensor placement, recommendation, advertising, intelligent user interfaces and automatic algorithm configuration. Despite these successes, the approach is restricted to problems of moderate dimension, and several workshops on Bayesian optimization have identified its scaling to high-dimensions as one of the holy grails of the field. In this paper, we introduce a novel random embedding idea to attack this problem. The resulting Random EMbedding Bayesian Optimization (REMBO) algorithm is very simple, has important invariance properties, and applies to domains with both categorical and continuous variables. We present a thorough theoretical analysis of REMBO, including regret bounds that only depend on the problem’s intrinsic dimensionality. Empirical results confirm that REMBO can effectively solve problems with billions of dimensions, provided the intrinsic dimensionality is low. They also show that REMBO achieves state-of-the-art performance in optimizing the 47 discrete parameters of a popular mixed integer linear programming solver.

Kurzweil Responds: Don’t Underestimate the Singularity

Por • 20 oct, 2011 • Category: Ambiente

Last week, Paul Allen and a colleague challenged the prediction that computers will soon exceed human intelligence. Now Ray Kurzweil, the leading proponent of the “Singularity,” offers a rebuttal. — Technology Review, Oct. 10, 2011.Allen writes that “the Law of Accelerating Returns (LOAR). . . is not a physical law.” I would point out that most scientific laws are not physical laws, but result from the emergent properties of a large number of events at a finer level. A classical example is the laws of thermodynamics (LOT). If you look at the mathematics underlying the LOT, they model each particle as following a random walk. So by definition, we cannot predict where any particular particle will be at any future time. Yet the overall properties of the gas are highly predictable to a high degree of precision according to the laws of thermodynamics. So it is with the law of accelerating returns. Each technology project and contributor is unpredictable, yet the overall trajectory as quantified by basic measures of price-performance and capacity nonetheless follow remarkably predictable paths.

On machine creativity and the notion of free will

Por • 12 may, 2011 • Category: sociologia

We discuss the possibility of freedom of action in embodied systems that are, with no exception and at all scales of their body, subject to physical law. We relate the discussion to a model of an artificial agent that exhibits a primitive notion of creativity and freedom in dealing with its environment, which is part of a recently introduced scheme of information processing called projective simulation. This provides an explicit proposal on how we can reconcile our understanding of universal physical law with the idea that higher biological entities can acquire a notion of freedom that allows them to increasingly detach themselves from a strict causal embedding into the surrounding world.

La ciencia y el relativismo. Una apología materialista de la razón

Por • 10 may, 2011 • Category: Filosofía

En suma, se trata de tomar partido por una filosofía experimentalista de la ciencia y una gnoseología materialista (que, por ejemplo, comprenda los aparatos científicos como máquinas epistémicas y ónticas, productoras de conocimiento y constructoras de mundo). Esta propuesta está en condiciones de asumir buena parte de las críticas anteriores y, al tiempo, evitar deslizarse hacia cualquier clase de relativismo epistemológico o social. Frente a Bloor, muñidor del Programa Fuerte en Sociología del Conocimiento (y matemático antes que sociólogo), Barnes, Collins y Pinch, puede diseñarse una filosofía de las ciencias que no renuncie a la verdad, la objetividad y la racionalidad (en un sentido material, no formal). Para ello, puede echarse mano de los resultados que los «estudios de laboratorio» (Latour, Woolgar, Knorr-Cetina, Pickering…), pero también el «nuevo experimentalismo» (Hacking, Galison, Franklin…), así como la «teoría del cierre categorial» del «materialismo filosófico» (Bueno, Álvarez, Alvargonzález, Huerga…), han ido obteniendo en los últimos quince años.