Artículos con la etiqueta ‘mercado’

Contextual and Structural Representations of Market-mediated Economic Value

Por • 31 mar, 2014 • Category: Economía

How do we assign value to economic transactions? To answer this question, we must consider whether the value of objects is inherent, is a product of social interaction, or involves other mechanisms. Economic theory predicts that there is an optimal price for any market transaction, and can be observed during auctions or other bidding processes. However, there are also social, cultural, and cognitive components to the assignation of value, which can be observed in both human and non-human Primate societies. While behaviors related to these factors are embedded in market interactions, they also involve a biological substrate for the assignation of value (valuation). To synthesize this diversity of perspectives, we will propose that the process of valuation can be modeled computationally and conceived of as a set of interrelated cultural evolutionary, cognitive, and neural processes.

Why free markets die: An evolutionary perspective

Por • 27 ene, 2014 • Category: Economía

Company mergers and acquisitions are often perceived to act as catalysts for corporate growth in free markets systems: it is conventional wisdom that those activities lead to better and more efficient markets. However, the broad adoption of this perception into corporate strategy is prone to result in a less diverse and more unstable environment, dominated by either very large or very small niche entities. We show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative history of mergers, is the key characteristic that encapsulates the diverse range of drivers behind mergers and acquisitions, across a range of industries and geographies. A long-term growth analysis reveals that entities which have been party to fewer mergers tend to grow faster than more highly acquisitive businesses.

Hierarchical Economic Agents and their Interactions

Por • 1 ene, 2014 • Category: sociologia

We present a new type of spin market model, populated by hierarchical agents, represented as configurations of sites and arcs in an evolving network. We describe two analytic techniques for investigating the asymptotic behavior of this model: one based on the spectral theory of Markov chains and another exploiting contingent submartingales to construct a deterministic cellular automaton that approximates the stochastic dynamics. Our study of this system documents a phase transition between a sub-critical and a super-critical regime based on the values of a coupling constant that modulates the tradeoff between local majority and global minority forces. In conclusion, we offer a speculative socioeconomic interpretation of the resulting distributional properties of the system.

China’s reform hands fail to clap

Por • 26 may, 2013 • Category: Política

Xi stated: The wholesale negation of the history of the Soviet Union and the CPSU, the negation of Lenin and Stalin … spawned historical nihilism and the confusion of thoughts… Various levels of party organizations [in the USSR] almost lost all their functions.Last January, Xi put forward his now-famous theory that the party should «not differentiate [post-1949 CCP] history into the pre-reform period and the post-reform period … While socialism with Chinese characters was initiated during the period of the reform and open door, this [creed] was established on the basis of more than 20 years of [socialist] construction [after 1949],» he said, «These two periods should not be [arbitrarily] cut off one from the other-and one period should not be used to negate the other.» That Li, who is China’s first «PhD prime minister», seems serious about reform is attested by the fact that some inchoate moves are afoot to tackle ingrained malpractices, particularly the monopolistic privileges enjoyed by the yangqi-many of which are run by either princelings (kin of party elders) or current and former senior cadres. For example, individual yangqi’s taxes and other contributions to state coffers will likely be increased by 10% this year. On a deeper level, irreconcilable contradictions persist between the economic goal of nurturing the marketplace and the political imperative of consolidating the CCP’s hold on power. For instance, senior cadres and princelings, including Xi, have a vested interest for personal as well as ideological reasons in perpetuating the special powers of vouchsafed SOE groupings in sectors ranging from banking and energy to telecommunications and aerospace. The political sensitivities associated with such control make challenging the status quo difficult if not impossible.

China 2013

Por • 20 mar, 2013 • Category: Economía

In the Maoist phase of this development planning, the Plan remained imperative in all details: nature and location of new establishments, production objectives, and prices. At that stage, no reasonable alternative was possible. I will mention here, without pursuing it further, the interesting debate about the nature of the law of value that underpinned planning in this period. The very success—and not the failure—of this first phase required an alteration of the means for pursuing an accelerated development project. The “opening” to private initiative—beginning in 1980, but above all from 1990—was necessary in order to avoid the stagnation that was fatal to the USSR. Despite the fact that this opening coincided with the globalized triumph of neo-liberalism—with all the negative effects of this coincidence, to which I shall return—the choice of a “socialism of the market,” or better yet, a “socialism with the market,” as fundamental for this second phase of accelerated development is largely justified, in my opinion.