Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Popular Physics (physics.pop-ph)’

Goethe’s Faust and the Minimal Action Principle: a possible Universal message

Por • 14 feb, 2014 • Category: Leyes

This short note is devoted to non-proficient in physics. Its purpose is that of proposing a possible universal connection between the definition of Action given by Goethe in his “Faust” tragic play and the Hamilton’s Principle of the Minimal Action. This Principle is one of the most general ways of formulating the dynamics of a physical system both in classical and in quantum physics. The recent discovery of the long time searched Higgs particle may be seen as the most spectacular successful confirmation of the Standard Model formalism based on the Minimal Action Principle. Supported by this experimental confirmation, we propose a possible general meaning of the Principle, inspired by the Goethe’s “Faust” tragic play.



Benford’s Law and the Universe

Por • 27 ene, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

Benford’s law predicts the occurrence of the n th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources of the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford’s law have been proven and analysed, it is still not fully mathematically understood. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford’s predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow reasonably well the first digit law and the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.



The hidden symmetry and Mr. Higgs!

Por • 12 ene, 2014 • Category: Educacion

Written in non-technical language, this review article explains the significance of the Higgs field and the associated Higgs boson in High-Energy Physics. The connection of symmetry with particle interactions and their unification is also discussed in this context. The presentation is informal and physical concepts are demonstrated through metaphors from everyday experience.



The universe as quantum computer

Por • 23 dic, 2013 • Category: Leyes

This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of physics. In particular, the model shows that the the quantum computational universe automatically gives rise to a mix of randomness and order, and to both simple and complex systems.



A Thousand Problems in Cosmology: Horizons

Por • 27 oct, 2013 • Category: Opinion

This is one chapter of the collection of problems in cosmology, in which we assemble the problems that concern one of the most distinctive features of general relativity and cosmology—the horizons. The first part gives an elementary introduction into the concept in the cosmological context, then we move to more formal exposition of the subject and consider first simple, and then composite models, such as Λ CDM. The fourth section elevates the rigor one more step and explores the causal structure of different simple cosmological models in terms of conformal diagrams. The section on black holes relates the general scheme of constructing conformal diagrams for stationary black hole spacetimes. The consequent parts focus on more specific topics, such as the various problems regarding the Hubble sphere, inflation and holography.
This version contains only formulations of 97 problems. The full collection, with solutions included, is available in the form of a wiki-based resource at this http URL The cosmological community is welcome to contribute to its development.



The genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond

Por • 22 sep, 2013 • Category: Leyes

n historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born-Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications.



Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective

Por • 21 sep, 2013 • Category: Crítica

Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems’complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems’all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh and profound understanding of computation complexity.



Information-Based Physics and the Influence Network

Por • 16 ago, 2013 • Category: Ambiente

This essay considers a simple model of observers that are influenced by the world around them. Consistent quantification of information about such influences results in a great deal of familiar physics. The end result is a new perspective on relativistic quantum mechanics, which includes both a way of conceiving of spacetime as well as particle “properties” that may be amenable to a unification of quantum mechanics and gravity. Rather than thinking about the universe as a computer, perhaps it is more accurate to think about it as a network of influences where the laws of physics derive from both consistent descriptions and optimal information-based inferences made by embedded observers.



The Twilight of the Scientific Age

Por • 23 may, 2013 • Category: sociologia

This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There is a loss of ideals in the search for great truths and a shift towards an anodyne specialized industry.



The most powerful particles in the Universe: a cosmic smash

Por • 9 may, 2013 • Category: Crítica

This year we are celebrating 101 years since the discovery of cosmic rays. They are whizzing all around the Universe, and they occur at very different energies, including the highest particle energies that exist. However, theory predicts an abrupt suppression (a “cutoff”) above a specific huge energy. This is difficult to verify, the measurements are controversial, but it provides a unique opportunity to probe established concepts of physics – like Lorentz Invariance – under extreme conditions. If the observations will ultimately contradict this “cutoff”, this could require a fundamental pillar of physics to be revised.