Artículos con la etiqueta ‘redes de información’

Trends in Computer Network Modeling Towards the Future Internet

Por • 6 mar, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

This article provides a taxonomy of current and past network modeling efforts. In all these efforts over the last few years we see a trend towards not only describing the network, but connected devices as well. This is especially current given the many Future Internet projects, which are combining different models, and resources in order to provide complete virtual infrastructures to users. An important mechanism for managing complexity is the creation of an abstract model, a step which has been undertaken in computer networks too. The fact that more and more devices are network capable, coupled with increasing popularity of the Internet, has made computer networks an important focus area for modeling. The large number of connected devices creates an increasing complexity which must be harnessed to keep the networks functioning.

A global quantum network

Por • 17 jun, 2013 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

By quantum-mechanically coupling laser-cooled atoms to glass fiber cables, Vienna University of Technology researchers have developed a way to store quantum information over a long enough period of time to allow for entangling atoms hundreds of kilometers apart via fiber cables. The problem with previous research is that after a short time, the quantum information stored in the atoms is lost as it leaks into the environment — an effect called “decoherence.” This finding is a fundamental building block for a global fiber-based quantum communication network, the researchers suggest.

Selection and Influence in Cultural Dynamics

Por • 6 may, 2013 • Category: sociologia

One of the fundamental principles driving diversity or homogeneity in domains such as cultural differentiation, political affiliation, and product adoption is the tension between two forces: influence (the tendency of people to become similar to others they interact with) and selection (the tendency to be affected most by the behavior of others who are already similar). Influence tends to promote homogeneity within a society, while selection frequently causes fragmentation. When both forces are in effect simultaneously, it becomes an interesting question to analyze which societal outcomes should be expected.

Self-organization of progress across the century of physics

Por • 5 may, 2013 • Category: sociologia

We make use of information provided in the titles and abstracts of over half a million publications that were published by the American Physical Society during the past 119 years. By identifying all unique words and phrases and determining their monthly usage patterns, we obtain quantifiable insights into the trends of physics discovery from the end of the 19th century to today. We show that the magnitudes of upward and downward trends yield heavy-tailed distributions, and that their emergence is due to the Matthew effect. This indicates that both the rise and fall of scientific paradigms is driven by robust principles of self-organization. Data also confirm that periods of war decelerate scientific progress, and that the later is very much subject to globalization.

Truthy: Enabling the Study of Online Social Networks

Por • 26 dic, 2012 • Category: sociologia

The broad adoption of online social networking platforms has made it possible to study communication networks at an unprecedented scale. Digital trace data can be compiled into large data sets of online discourse. However, it is a challenge to collect, store, filter, and analyze large amounts of data, even by experts in the computational sciences. Here we describe our recent extensions to Truthy, a system that collects Twitter data to analyze discourse in near real-time. We introduce several interactive visualizations and analytical tools with the goal of enabling citizens, journalists, and researchers to understand and study online social networks at multiple scales.

Technology Diffusion in Communication Networks

Por • 19 feb, 2012 • Category: sociologia

We propose a new model of technology diffusion inspired by the networking literature on this topic. Given the communication network $G(V,E)$, we assume that node $u$ activates (i.e. deploys the new technology) when it is adjacent to a connected component of active nodes in $G$ of size exceeding node $u$’s threshold $\theta(u)$. We focus on an algorithmic problem that is well understood in the context of social networks, but thus far has only heuristic solutions in the context of communication networks: determining the smallest seedset of early adopter nodes, that once activated, cause a cascade that eventually causes all other nodes in the network to activate as well. Our main result is a near-optimal approximation algorithm that returns a seedset that is an $O(r\ell \log|V|)$-factor larger than then the optimal seedset, where $r$ is the graph diameter and each node’s threshold can take on one of at most $\ell$ possible values. Our results highlight the substantial algorithmic difference between our problem and the work in diffusion on social networks.

Transformation Networks: How Innovation and the Availability of Technology can Increase Economic Performance

Por • 31 dic, 2011 • Category: sociologia

A transformation network describes how one set of resources can be transformed into another via technological processes. Transformation networks in economics are useful because they can highlight areas for future innovations, both in terms of new products, new production techniques, or better efficiency. They also make it easy to detect areas where an economy might be fragile. In this paper, we use computational simulations to investigate how the density of a transformation network affects the economic performance, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP), of an artificial economy. Our results show that on average, the GDP of our economy increases as the density of the transformation network increases. We also find that while the average performance increases, the maximum possible performance decreases and the minimum possible performance increases.

Neuropsychological constraints to human data production on a global scale

Por • 3 dic, 2011 • Category: Opinion

Which are the factors underlying human information production on a global level? In order to gain an insight into this question we study a corpus of 252-633 Million publicly available data files on the Internet corresponding to an overall storage volume of 284-675 Terabytes. Analyzing the file size distribution for several distinct data types we find indications that the neuropsychological capacity of the human brain to process and record information may constitute the dominant limiting factor for the overall growth of globally stored information, with real-world economic constraints having only a negligible influence. This supposition draws support from the observation that the files size distributions follow a power law for data without a time component, like images, and a log-normal distribution for multimedia files, for which time is a defining qualia.

Collective emotions online and their influence on community life

Por • 17 jul, 2011 • Category: sociologia

E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information – how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web.