Artículos con la etiqueta ‘termodinámica’

Methodological principles of modern thermodynamics

Por • 7 ene, 2014 • Category: Ciencia y tecnología

The article describes basic principles of the theory which unites thermodynamics of reversible and irreversible processes also extends them methods on processes of transfer and transformation of any forms of energy

The logical foundations of Gibbs’ paradox in classical thermodynamics

Por • 6 may, 2013 • Category: Crítica

The analysis of the arguments within the limits of the classical thermodynamics that lead to the Gibbs paradox was made. Features of preconditions used in the derivation of the entropy of mixing of ideal gases that caused the appearance of paradox were established. It was shown that the Gibbs paradox has not connection with the assumption of discrete differences between the parameters of different gases.

Inconsistency of Carnot’s theorem’s proof by R. Clausius

Por • 20 mar, 2013 • Category: Educacion

R. Clausius proved Carnot’s theorem basing on postulate “Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a colder to a hotter body”. Alexander Gukhman demonstrated that Carnot’s theorem can be proved based on the postulate “Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a hotter to a colder body”. He concluded that Carnot’s theorem does not follow from Clausius’ postulate. The following paper gives a detailed justification of Gukhman’s derivation.

Kurzweil Responds: Don’t Underestimate the Singularity

Por • 20 oct, 2011 • Category: Ambiente

Last week, Paul Allen and a colleague challenged the prediction that computers will soon exceed human intelligence. Now Ray Kurzweil, the leading proponent of the “Singularity,” offers a rebuttal. — Technology Review, Oct. 10, 2011.Allen writes that “the Law of Accelerating Returns (LOAR). . . is not a physical law.” I would point out that most scientific laws are not physical laws, but result from the emergent properties of a large number of events at a finer level. A classical example is the laws of thermodynamics (LOT). If you look at the mathematics underlying the LOT, they model each particle as following a random walk. So by definition, we cannot predict where any particular particle will be at any future time. Yet the overall properties of the gas are highly predictable to a high degree of precision according to the laws of thermodynamics. So it is with the law of accelerating returns. Each technology project and contributor is unpredictable, yet the overall trajectory as quantified by basic measures of price-performance and capacity nonetheless follow remarkably predictable paths.

Metamaterial Reveals Nature of Time and the Impossibility of Time Machines

Por • 7 abr, 2011 • Category: Leyes, Portada

By recreating the Big Bang inside a metamaterial for the first time, physicists have shown why the cosmological arrow of time points in the same direction as the thermodynamic arrow of time. Metamaterials are periodic structures that can be engineered to steer light in specific ways. The trick is to manipulate the properties of the “electromagnetic space” in which light travels by controlling the values of the permittivity and permeability of this space. But metamaterials have a more profound application because there is a formal analogy between the mathematics of electromagnetic spaces and the mathematics of general relativity and the spacetime it describes.