Artículos con la etiqueta ‘Unión Europa’

World Energy: From the «Shale Revolution» to Healthy Pragmatism? (I)

Por • 12 jun, 2013 • Category: Economía

The leading European companies approach the problem of extracting shale gas critically, seeing in it an indirect ecological threat for the entire continent. The development of shale gas fields in North America led to a drastic breakdown of the energy system in Europe: the U.S. placed its bets on shale gas, which caused prices in the coal industry to drop; Europeans rushed to buy up the cheap coal, and Europe literally started «smoking». And the Americans themselves, after trying to become pioneers in shale gas extraction, are still cautious in evaluating prospects. Test drilling caused massive protests in the U.S., as the method of hydraulically fragmenting the shale (fracking) used in such cases is hazardous to groundwater and the atmosphere. In addition, leading companies and analytical institutes vary widely in their evaluations of the prospects of shale gas extraction in the U.S., which does not justify affirmations of a «shale revolution» either.

Is Europe Evolving Toward an Integrated Research Area?

Por • 14 feb, 2013 • Category: sociologia

An integrated European Research Area (ERA) is a critical component for a more competitive and open European R&D system. However, the impact of EU-specific integration policies aimed at overcoming innovation barriers associated with national borders is not well understood. Here we analyze 2.4 x 10^6 patent applications filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) over the 25-year period 1986-2010 along with a sample of 2.6 x 10^5 records from the ISI Web of Science to quantitatively measure the role of borders in international R&D collaboration and mobility. From these data we construct five different networks for each year analyzed: (i) the patent co-inventor network, (ii) the publication co-author network, (iii) the co-applicant patent network, (iv) the patent citation network, and (v) the patent mobility network. We use methods from network science and econometrics to perform a comparative analysis across time and between EU and non-EU countries to determine the “treatment effect” resulting from EU integration policies. Using non-EU countries as a control set, we provide quantitative evidence that, despite decades of efforts to build a European Research Area, there has been little integration above global trends in patenting and publication. This analysis provides concrete evidence that Europe remains a collection of national innovation systems.

Los problemas del euro pueden agravarse en 2011

Por • 1 feb, 2011 • Category: Opinion

La crisis de la deuda pública parece estar cobrando fuerza en la Unión Europea (UE) y la cotización del euro, la moneda única, está bajando irremediablemente.

In the shadow of Vesuvius

Por • 9 dic, 2010 • Category: Internacionales

If Europe and Italy fail, in a way, China and the rest of the world will also fail, losing the cradle of modernization and leaving everybody more lonely, confused and possibly prone to big mistakes.